This is the 9th annual report of monthly census in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo from April, 1973 to March 1974. The same route of 4.1km was censused from about 9.40-11.30 a.m. as in the previous years. The results are tabulated in the same order of bird species only to add at the end additional species newly recorded for the year. Tallies were made in two basic tables, one for wooded area with small ponds, the other with big moats used as duck resort in winter and heron colony in summer. The number of species and number of individuals recorded per one census day ranged 15-32 (av. 23.9) species and 275-789 (av. 496.1) birds, which were slightly higher than in the previous year but reflecting a stable status of common birds. The total number of species recorded for 1973 was 53, which is 59.5% of the species so far recorded (89 species) during recent years, thus quite many species on the recorded list are lacking for 1973, as in each previous year. Four species, Eophona migratoria, Motacilla grandis, Otus scops and Falco columbarius, were added to the bird list of the Imperial Palace. The kingfisher Alcedo atthis reoccurred in 1973-74 winter after its disappearance since 1963. Some observations and records on the flocking, feeding and breeding (nest boxes for Great tit and Mandarin Duck) of birds, especially of the Great tit and Green Pheasant, are tabulated, with also some records of insects, etc.
1. Census data of forest birds obtained by the author and his coworkers during 1966 and 1972 in JIBP-CTS and other projects or private surveys, are here analysed tentatively by using 'bird community curves' and other graphs. 2. All the raw data were obtained by line transect census in which passing time through every different forest habitat was recorded so as to calculate number of individuals per hour (N/h), the 'time-density' of birds which can be used as abundance index. 3. The data of time-density (N/h) were presented in a 'bird community curve', drawn with N/h on Y-axis and species on X-axis, arranged left to right from high to low value of N/h. Thus, the curve combines the relative number of individual (N/h) and number of species, therefore quantitatively representing the bird community. 4. The position of each species or related species can be checked or indicated by special marks on a bird community curve for the purpose of comparative analysis. 5. The area between X, Y axis and bird community curve represent the carrying capacity of the habitat for that bird community, and may be used as the bird communty index of the habitat or as the index of habitat value for the bird community. These indices are of numerical nature based on N/h and relative biomass index can be calculated from it by multiplying species' individual body weight. 6. Ecological grouping of forest birds was made by rough divisions of upper, middle and lower forest layer inhabitants for the purpose of analysis of bird distribution in the forest of each type. Group A comprises tits and other small species of upper to middle layers, including insect and tree-fruit eaters. Group B consists of warblers, flycatchers, etc., the small insect eaters, chiefly of middle or lower layer. Group C, chiefly small or middle sized thrush group and wren, etc, of ground foraging habits. Group D, the ground foraging Emberiza spp., which are granivorous and insect eaters, including however tree bud eaters such as bulfinch or grosbeaks, etc., and also shrikes. Group E is represented by middle sized woodpeckers and cuckoos with specialized food habit. Group F is formed by midde to large birds which inhabit upper layer (crow family, etc.) or ground layer (pheasants) (Being very few in record the birds of prey are not included). 7. As the result, small birds are far dominant in number over others occupying all the upper, middle and lower forest layers and the middle layer of the forest is considered to be the layer where small birds have evolved their diversity without pressure of larger birds which chiefly inhabit upper or lower layers. 8. The bird community curves can be classified into principal 3 types: 1. Mixed forest type 2. Broad leaved forest type and 3. Needle-leaved forest type, with other combined types. These were shown characteristically by graphs based on data from 13 habitats in Mt. Fuji area. Curves obtained from data of many other mountains from Hokkaido to the Ryukyus supported these types or showed variations due to avifaunal differences in bird community (With decreasing palearctic species toward the south to the Ryukyus, therefore showing abreviated shorter bird community curves). The seasonal difference of bird community curves of a same forest type was also shown for habitats of Mt. Fuji area. 9. For relative comparison of habitat selection by related species of birds represented by time-density (N/h) in 13 different habitats in Mt. Fuji area, circle and rod graphs were also used.
1. In 1971, Niigata Prefecture constructed a wildlife protection center, which includes pheasant raising and bird hospital. By April, 1974, 250 wounded or unhealthy birds of 52 species were treated and 18 of them were Ural Owls Strix uralensis, of which 6 were wounded (by car or shot) and 12 were nestlings fallen down from the nest. 2. This paper reports on Ural Owls about the treatment of wounds, cages (3.3m2 for wounded and 6.6m2 for recovered birds), food, artificial raising of chicks and hatching of eggs laid by protected birds. Also, their vocalization is described. 3. In March to April 1973, one of the protected owls (No. A) laid 5 eggs on the ground which were broken and confirmed to be unfertile after 21 days of incubation. 4. A fallen chick (No. D) picked up on 6 June 1972, laid 2 eggs, at 10 month old, on 27 March, 2 April, 1973 and one egg on 31 March 1974. 5. A wounded bird (No. F) protected on 25 March 1973, was kept with No. A from October and No. A laid 4 eggs on 14, 17, 21, 23 March 1974, of which 2 chicks hatched by artificial incubator. But they died on the 3rd and 6th days after hatching. After taking their own eggs (for artificial incubation), 4 chicken eggs were given which No. A incubated until 3 chicks hatched, but these were eaten by owls during that night. 6. All of D, H. and I chicks first uttered characteristic song at 8 month old after hatching.