山階鳥類研究所研究報告
Online ISSN : 1883-3659
Print ISSN : 0044-0183
ISSN-L : 0044-0183
7 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
  • 黒田 長久
    1974 年 7 巻 3 号 p. 251-267
    発行日: 1974/06/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    This is the 9th annual report of monthly census in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo from April, 1973 to March 1974. The same route of 4.1km was censused from about 9.40-11.30 a.m. as in the previous years. The results are tabulated in the same order of bird species only to add at the end additional species newly recorded for the year.
    Tallies were made in two basic tables, one for wooded area with small ponds, the other with big moats used as duck resort in winter and heron colony in summer.
    The number of species and number of individuals recorded per one census day ranged 15-32 (av. 23.9) species and 275-789 (av. 496.1) birds, which were slightly higher than in the previous year but reflecting a stable status of common birds. The total number of species recorded for 1973 was 53, which is 59.5% of the species so far recorded (89 species) during recent years, thus quite many species on the recorded list are lacking for 1973, as in each previous year.
    Four species, Eophona migratoria, Motacilla grandis, Otus scops and Falco columbarius, were added to the bird list of the Imperial Palace. The kingfisher Alcedo atthis reoccurred in 1973-74 winter after its disappearance since 1963. Some observations and records on the flocking, feeding and breeding (nest boxes for Great tit and Mandarin Duck) of birds, especially of the Great tit and Green Pheasant, are tabulated, with also some records of insects, etc.
  • 黒田 長久
    1974 年 7 巻 3 号 p. 268-292_8
    発行日: 1974/06/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Census data of forest birds obtained by the author and his coworkers during 1966 and 1972 in JIBP-CTS and other projects or private surveys, are here analysed tentatively by using 'bird community curves' and other graphs.
    2. All the raw data were obtained by line transect census in which passing time through every different forest habitat was recorded so as to calculate number of individuals per hour (N/h), the 'time-density' of birds which can be used as abundance index.
    3. The data of time-density (N/h) were presented in a 'bird community curve', drawn with N/h on Y-axis and species on X-axis, arranged left to right from high to low value of N/h. Thus, the curve combines the relative number of individual (N/h) and number of species, therefore quantitatively representing the bird community.
    4. The position of each species or related species can be checked or indicated by special marks on a bird community curve for the purpose of comparative analysis.
    5. The area between X, Y axis and bird community curve represent the carrying capacity of the habitat for that bird community, and may be used as the bird communty index of the habitat or as the index of habitat value for the bird community. These indices are of numerical nature based on N/h and relative biomass index can be calculated from it by multiplying species' individual body weight.
    6. Ecological grouping of forest birds was made by rough divisions of upper, middle and lower forest layer inhabitants for the purpose of analysis of bird distribution in the forest of each type. Group A comprises tits and other small species of upper to middle layers, including insect and tree-fruit eaters. Group B consists of warblers, flycatchers, etc., the small insect eaters, chiefly of middle or lower layer. Group C, chiefly small or middle sized thrush group and wren, etc, of ground foraging habits. Group D, the ground foraging Emberiza spp., which are granivorous and insect eaters, including however tree bud eaters such as bulfinch or grosbeaks, etc., and also shrikes. Group E is represented by middle sized woodpeckers and cuckoos with specialized food habit. Group F is formed by midde to large birds which inhabit upper layer (crow family, etc.) or ground layer (pheasants) (Being very few in record the birds of prey are not included).
    7. As the result, small birds are far dominant in number over others occupying all the upper, middle and lower forest layers and the middle layer of the forest is considered to be the layer where small birds have evolved their diversity without pressure of larger birds which chiefly inhabit upper or lower layers.
    8. The bird community curves can be classified into principal 3 types: 1. Mixed forest type 2. Broad leaved forest type and 3. Needle-leaved forest type, with other combined types. These were shown characteristically by graphs based on data from 13 habitats in Mt. Fuji area. Curves obtained from data of many other mountains from Hokkaido to the Ryukyus supported these types or showed variations due to avifaunal differences in bird community (With decreasing palearctic species toward the south to the Ryukyus, therefore showing abreviated shorter bird community curves). The seasonal difference of bird community curves of a same forest type was also shown for habitats of Mt. Fuji area.
    9. For relative comparison of habitat selection by related species of birds represented by time-density (N/h) in 13 different habitats in Mt. Fuji area, circle and rod graphs were also used.
  • 杉浦 邦彦
    1974 年 7 巻 3 号 p. 293-308
    発行日: 1974/06/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1)伊勢道路は1893年頃,3.0m幅の小さな県道であったが1965年,日本道路公団により幅6.5mのアスファルト舗装道として開通した。当時は1日平均1500台の自動車通過をみたが最近はその3.5倍近い5300台の通行量となった。これにともない野鳥の斃死体が道路上で頻度高く発見されるようになったため,これをとりまとめ解析してみた。
    2)神宮林は一般に暖帯林の天然林であると考えられているが大部分は人工林である。ところが伊勢道路の通過する個所は常緑広葉樹が主体となり,落葉広葉樹は極くわずか点在している。いわゆる天然林が五十鈴川の上流に沿って細長く続き,この天然林の中を伊勢道路が走っている。
    3)野鳥の事故件数を年次的変動でみると.その相対被害優占度(相対被害数/総合計相対被害数×100)は開通当時の1965年よりも1972年の方が大きく,その値は約3.2倍となっている。これは自動車の通過数量の約3.5倍と同じに近い数で野鳥の被害数と自動車の通過数とは比例しているようである。
    4)10科18種に及ぶ被害野鳥は72.2%が留鳥,16.7%が冬鳥で両者合せて89%の多くになる。そしてこの野鳥の被害数全体の1/3が若鳥であることは注目させられる。また,被害野鳥はジョウビタキの21.4%を最高に,ホオジロの14.3%と続き,実にヒタキ科に属するものは全体の45.2%にも達する。これは野鳥の生活環境による例えば採餌,ねぐらなどの習性からくる影響によるものではないだろうか。
    5)被害野鳥の季節的傾向については3月の19%を最高に2月,4月,11月,12月,1月の10%。台で,11月から翌年4月の6カ月間に87%が衝突被害を受けており,夏季より冬季の方が被害は約3倍ほど多くなっている。これは神宮林内の野鳥生息密度数と関連しているようである。
    6)被害野鳥の死亡原因を明確なものだけとってみると,頭部内出血が33%で最も多く,道路の左右いずれの方からも等しい数の頻度で衝突しているようである。衝突の激度については内臓の内出血を14%も数えるが,この中には大動脈切断や肝臓破裂などあって衝突時のスピードのすごさが推察される。
    7)被害野鳥が集中して発見される地域性については伊勢道路と殆んど直角に交差する,延長約20m以上,幅2~5mの小谷の吐出口に多いか,旧県道と伊勢道路が交差する幅広い無立木地の交差点附近にウグイス,シロハラなど低空移動性の野鳥が被害を受け易い。これをまとめると伊勢道路の神宮林内約8kmのうち9個所にそれが顕著に現われている。
    8)目撃例では野鳥が自動車に驚いて逃げるときのスピードが大体30~60km/hである。したがって自動車のスピード60km/hでは衝突被害は現れるが,最高50km/hではその限界になるようである。野鳥に逃避準備のできないときは30km/hでも危険性はあるが,普通40km/hのスピードで自動車の運転をすれば山間部を走る道路としては野鳥に危害を及ぼすことはないようである。
  • 横田 義雄, 西出 隆
    1974 年 7 巻 3 号 p. 309-323
    発行日: 1974/06/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    宮城県伊豆沼で越冬したマガン,ヒシクイ,シジュウカラガン及びハクガンが,春の渡去に際し,奥羽山腹を越えて秋田県八郎潟水田に下り採餌休息を行なったのち,更に北帰の旅に出発した事実を明らかにした。
    日本の本州の東北地方において,太平洋側で越冬した雁の群が,渡去時に奥羽山腹を越えて日本海側に移動することは,従来の文献に記載がないと思われるので,新知見として報告する。
  • 松岡 茂
    1974 年 7 巻 3 号 p. 324-329
    発行日: 1974/06/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1973年石狩平野の防風林に営巣したトラフズク2巣の繁殖期間中(5~7月)に取集されたペリット分析を行なった。
    1.餌動物はけっ歯目5種,食虫目1種,小型鳥類であったが,その中でもエゾヤチネズミが最も多く,ペリットに含まれていた餌動物数の約87%を占めていた(Table 1)。これはエゾヤチネズミが防風林内に圧倒的に多いことによっていると推定される。
    2.ペリット1個当りの餌動物数は平均26個体であった。
    3.ペリットに含まれていたエゾヤチネズミを令査定し,それの月変化をみると,実際に防風林内に生息するものの月変化と類似した傾向がみられた(Table 2,Fig.2)。
  • Walther Thiede
    1974 年 7 巻 3 号 p. 330-332
    発行日: 1974/06/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 風間 辰男
    1974 年 7 巻 3 号 p. 333-349
    発行日: 1974/06/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. In 1971, Niigata Prefecture constructed a wildlife protection center, which includes pheasant raising and bird hospital. By April, 1974, 250 wounded or unhealthy birds of 52 species were treated and 18 of them were Ural Owls Strix uralensis, of which 6 were wounded (by car or shot) and 12 were nestlings fallen down from the nest.
    2. This paper reports on Ural Owls about the treatment of wounds, cages (3.3m2 for wounded and 6.6m2 for recovered birds), food, artificial raising of chicks and hatching of eggs laid by protected birds. Also, their vocalization is described.
    3. In March to April 1973, one of the protected owls (No. A) laid 5 eggs on the ground which were broken and confirmed to be unfertile after 21 days of incubation.
    4. A fallen chick (No. D) picked up on 6 June 1972, laid 2 eggs, at 10 month old, on 27 March, 2 April, 1973 and one egg on 31 March 1974.
    5. A wounded bird (No. F) protected on 25 March 1973, was kept with No. A from October and No. A laid 4 eggs on 14, 17, 21, 23 March 1974, of which 2 chicks hatched by artificial incubator. But they died on the 3rd and 6th days after hatching. After taking their own eggs (for artificial incubation), 4 chicken eggs were given which No. A incubated until 3 chicks hatched, but these were eaten by owls during that night.
    6. All of D, H. and I chicks first uttered characteristic song at 8 month old after hatching.
  • 黒田 長久
    1974 年 7 巻 3 号 p. Plate8-Plate11
    発行日: 1974/06/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
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