1, This paper aimed at the classification of Japanese forest bird communities in the breeding season based on the structure and similarity analyses of various census data (84 plots) collected by the author and others. 2, The similarities of the bird communities between forests or localities were analyzed using Whittaker's index of association (1952) about the eight major types of forest in Japan. And finally, fifteen types of bird community were classified with about 40% similarity. 3. The bird communities in the coniferous forest at the subalpine zone and the coniferous young plantation at every locality are very dissimilar with the other forests. In the other bird communities, there are many cases of high similarity between them, excluding the similarity between the types in the temperate zone and the subtropical zone. 4. The dominance ratio of summer visitor birds group was highest in the temperate zone forests (reaches to 40%), and lower in the young plantation and the subtropical zone forests. 5. It was concluded to be reasonable in the naming of the fifteen types of the bird community to use the name of the dominant three bird species in each type as follows: A. Coniferous forest at the subalpine zone in Hokkaido Parus ater-Carduelis spinus-Regulus regulus Associatin C. Pan-mixed forest in Hokkaido Emberiza spodocephala-Parus ater-Parus major Association D. Mature plantation at Tomakomai district in Hokkaido Phylloscopus occipitalis-Emberiza cioides-Emberiza spodocephala Association B. Coniferous forest at the subalpine zone in Houshu and Shikoku Parus ater-Phylloscopus borealis-Tarsiger cyanurus Association E. Fagus crenata zone in northeastern Honshu Parus major-Parus ater-Ficedula narcissina Association G. Quercus mongolica zone Ficedula narcissina-Phylloscopus occipitalis-Parus major Association F. Fagus crenata zone in southwestern district Parus ater-Sitta europaea-Parus montanus Association H. Coniferous forest at the temperate zone Parus ater-Parus major-Parus varius Association I. Deciduous broad-leaved forest at the subtropical zone Hypsipetes amaurotis-Emberiza cioides-Parus major Association J. Evergreen broad-leaved forest at the subtropical zone Parus varius-Hypsipetes amaurotis-Parus major Association L. Mature plantation with broad-leaved tree layer at the temperate zone Erithacus cyane-Parus ater-Parus major Association K. Mature plantation with open crown layer at the temperate zone Emberiza spodocephala-Parus ater-Turdus chrysolaus Association N. Young plantation at the temperate zone Emberiza spodocephala-Cettia diphone-Emberiza cioides Association M. Mature plantation at the subtropical and lowland temperate zone Hypsipetes amaurotis-Emberiza cioides-Parus ater Association O. Young plantation at the subtropical and lowland temperate zone Cettia diphone-Emberiza cioides-Lanius bucephalus Association (alphabets coincide with Table 11)
Continued from the third report describing observations of family life of the Jungle CrowCorvus macrorhynchos, May 19-22, 1969 (31-34 days after hatching of chicks, 5-2 days before leaving the nest), this fourth part reports the behavior of the family from May 27 to June 13 (39-56 days after hatching, 3-20 days after flying of chicks), and this is to be continued to the detailed report of observations of June to August, already published before (Kuroda 1969). 1. On the third day, May 27, after leaving the nest, the fledglings were sitting in the nest tree above the nest to be fed by parents, but could fly about 30m to adjacent tree. 2. The female foraged wider than during chicks' nestling period and between 8.00-9.39 a.m., for example, she fed the chicks 6 times with a rhythm of feeding intervals, 25, 5, 22, 4 and 29 minutes, while the male fed only twice with an interval of 69 minutes, and in total average interval was 13.8 minutes. With this frequency a chick may have been fed 1.3 times/hour by parents. 3. The female nervonsly defended against other crows trespassing over the territory (once she flew up with half-eaten food in the throat and one feed for chicks was skipped), but the kite Milvus migrans released only a slight reaction of the female. On May 27, the female defended against 7 intruders during observation of 235 minutes and she showed apparent exhaustion in final defense. 4. On the 8th day after fledged, the chicks rested quietly during midday hours, the female's feeding intervals being as long as average 58+ minutes, and that of the male 87+ minutes; about 43.5 minutes by both parents. 5. On this day, between 13.00 and 16.00p.m. (174min.), the female foraged as far as about 400m from the nest, but the male rather stayed near the nest watching them and resting, and the defense drive against trespassing crows was low both in male and female. 6. On the 15th day after fledged, the chicks were found at a small open space with parents about 100m from the nest, where they passed some afternoon hours. The parents were more concerned with their young than the defense against other crows intruding over their tenitory. The molting of the wings and tail began in the male in advance of the female. 7. In the morning of the 16th day after fledged, the young were flying about their nest tree and followed the female who fed them rather frequently, while the male rested at high place watching his family. Thus the young were active and were fed chiefly during the morning. 8. On the 20th day after the young fledged, the family virtually broke up, since two young disappeared from the territory (after led by parents to communal roost in the previous day's evening) but a delayed young remained in the territory until 94 days after fledged (Kuroda 1969). On the above day, it was observed to peck at the food the female eating and for the first time it alighted on the ground for self-foraging, but still begged food from the female. It flew to roost with the parents in the evening, but returned to the parents' territory by itself in the next morning. acted It with the female, their movements being watched or followed by the male to join them. As already mentioned before (Kuroda 1969), this young was never rejected by parents from their territory. 9. On August 31, four days after this final young deserted the territory. The pair passed the hot midday hours in the dense foliage of the nest-tree. Now having been released from care of young, they spent a quarter of an hour sitting close by and almost four hours the female indulged in continuous solioquy utterrance of 4-6 'ka'-notes series, moving among the foliage. This strange sustained vocal behavior of the female may be a displacement activity due to a vacant mental condition resulting from the sudden life-change from a busy young-caring to a leisurely post-breeding pair-life pattern.
1. A particular female Whooper Swan and her family, wintering at a well known swan and waterfowl resort, lake Hyoko near Niigata City on Japan Sea coast of Honshu, were kept under observation of behavior in two successive winters. Here the swans (and other waterfowls) are well tamed by artificial feeding. 2. This particular female could be identified by a pair of small yellow spots on both sides of the black part of the bill. 3. In 1974-75 winter, she formed a family with her mate and four cygnets, but she returned in December 1975 with a male not accompanied by cygnets. 4. Continuous observations of 4.6 hours and 6 hours were made on February 14, 1975 and January 30, 1976 respectively. 5. Their movements were recorded every 2 minutes and the moving distance/per hour was 680m, on February 14, 1975 (with cygnets), and only 67m, on January 30, 1976 (withont cygnets). 6. Although the lake condition partly caused the above difference of moving distance/per hour in 1975 and 76, because most of the lake surface except artificial feeding place was frozen in 1976, but all the surface was free from ice in 1975, the difference of family composition in the two years, with or without cygnets, was apparently correlated as mentioned below. 7. The 1976 pair, without cygnets, responded quickly to the artificial feeding and after eating enough could rest on nearly ice not moving to a distance, but the 1975 family, with cygnets, arrived feeding place later than others and could not eat enough, thus moving away to continue feeding on natural food at other parts of the lake.
A presumed old female pintail Anas acuta with masculinized plumage pattern is here reported with its photo taken by Mr. Akio Sasagawa at Shinobazu pond, Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, early February, 1974. It has rough flank markings and elongated central tail feathess. Another example of different plumage pattern also found at the same pond, photographed a 10 February 1976, by Mr. Kazue Nakamura is added. Kuroda (1929, '39) had reported another old record of the pintail and a female Mandarin duck Aix galericulata was masculinized when molted after long kept in author's aviary.