1. The modes of diurnal and nocturnal dispersions of Emberiza fucata in the area of the high density of population in winter were observed and were compared with those of some other species of genus Emberiza. 2. The study area was a quadrat (1.2×1.6km) established on the paddy field near Kushira-Machi, southern Kyushiu. We investigated this region in February, 1975 and counted 1, 149 birds of genus Emberisa analyzed here. 3. The genus Emberiza wintering in this study region included were four species, Emberiza fucata, E. rustica, E. cioides and E. spodocephala. The species of the highest density of these emberizids was E. rustica (61.2%), the second was E. fucata (33.6%), E. cioides and E. spodocephala were only few numbers (3.4% and 1.8% respectively) 4. There were some ecological differences between E. fucata and E. rustics. E. fucata which ihanbit on the grassy patch in paddy field along the river, with small flock size (av. 1.6 birds) and small variance (v=2.26). The index of clumping of E. fucata was moderately high (I=4.00) and the index of patchiness of this species was low (2.29). On the other hand, E. rustica inhabits on the wet paddy surface in the central part of the paddy field, with large flock size (av. 9.2 birds) and very large variance (v=254.23). The index of clumping of E. rustica was very high (I=44.46) and the index of patchiness was high (12.8). 5. The communal roosting assemblages of E. fucata were found on the glassy patch in paddy field and flooded area in the river. On the latter grassy area, the assembly of roosting birds was larger than the former area. The behaviours by pair were observed near and on the roosting site. 6. It seemed that the mode of E. fucata over the paddy field in winter is the intermediate type on a gradation from E. rustica to E. cioides.
We studied on the wintering ecology of Motacilla alba lugens, one of the subspesies of the white wagtail, in the area of about 6 ha, situated at the middle stream of the Tama River, Tokyo, during the periods of November 1972 to March 1973 and October 1973 to March 1974. Winter territories and undefended feeding ranges were established till November and were maintained through winter. Those territories were occupied by one or two birds, consisting of both sexes. Sexes were checked by their behaviors such as "wing-quivering display" and "vertical flight display". Wanderers without territories tried to intrude in singles. Territorial behaviors against intruders were classified into five patterns; confronting, threat, chase, fight and alert. Territorial birds in the area hold one or more feeding sites out of their territories. Observation-area curves of territorial birds were classified into three patterns; sigmoid curve, cubic curve and straight line. Those occurrence frequencies changed seasonally and annually. And the size of feeding sites also changed seasonally and annually. Those changes were seemingly unrelated to the rates of territory fixing and to the sizes of territories. However, in every case, the activities of the birds clearly concentrated in feeding sites. Average territory size was 3364m2 in the first winter and 4519m2 in the next winter. The occurrences of roosting flights concentrated 30 minutes before and after sunset. Most of the birds flew north. In winter, white wagtail was seemingly dominant in Motacilidae, at least in the study area. Attacks against the predators were also observed.
The authoer has studied distributions of three kinds of shrikes (Laniidae), i. e., the Bull-headed Shrike Lanius bucephalus, the Red-tailed Shrike L. cristatus that commonly breed in Hokkaido, and the Grey Shrike L. excubitor that visits there in the winter season. The study has been conducted by means of field surveys by the author, his questionaries to and interviews with ornithologists and bird watchers, and refering to the published papers by other schalars. Each area where these species were recorded is indicated by a circle drawn on the map of Hokkaido on the scale of 50, 000. Moreover, distributions of the shrikes in Sapporo and Koshimizu areas were studied in detail. The results are as follows. 1. It was confirmed that the Bull-headed and the Red-tailed Shrikes were distributed almost entirely over Hokkaido, though the former was somewhat than was the latter. In the northern and eastern parts of Hokkaido, the density of both shrikes was very low. 2. The grey shrike was recorded at many areas every year. The recorded period covered up to 10 months in a year with the exception of records in June and September. This species usually visited the coastal areas along the Ochotsk Sea in autumn and disappeared in spring and reached peak in number before and after February. 3. From the detailed field surveys in Sapporo and Koshimizu, the bull-headed shrike was found to have wider in habitat preference, from open land to the foot of a mountain, than in the Red-tailed Shrike which was found mostly in open land. 4. The Bull-headed Shrike has been considered as a summer visitor to Hokkaido, but a few individuals might have stayed in Hokkaido during the winter.
This is additional observation records of 1970 of a breeding pair of Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos and chiefly supplements the lack of 1969 observations in early incubation period. 1. In 1970, probably the same pair remained in the same territory of 1969. On March 27, the female was found incubating, unexpectedly in a Ligustrum about several meters from the ground, not high up in the big gingko tree as in the previous year. 2. In early incubation period (2nd-3rd days), the incubation rate of the female was 68-70%, with average 20 minutes sessions and 7-8 (longest minutes 16, 22) minutes recessions. In a case of middle incubation period (14th day), the rate increased to 75%, with 15-42 (av. 29.3) minutes cessions and 5-10 (av. 7) recessions. In later period (19-20th days), in short evening observations, the incubation rate further increased to 76-86%, with 15-32 (av. 19) minutes sessions and av. 2-3 minutes recessions. 3. The trespass intrusion over territorial border of wandering, apparently young, pairs or solitary crows were frequent, especially during early incubation period. These were not so strongly defended (often only watched by male), but those intruded over territory within about 400m from nest site were positively chased away by male with cooperation of female, and once, when the female was away from the nest, a crow succeeded to thrust himself deep to the center of territory attracted by old (1969's) nest in gingko tree, but was violently attacked by female and chased away by male (see Kuroda, Misc. Rep. Yam. Inst. Nos. 37/38: 548). 4. The territory trespass of wandering crows was most frequent during the morning and in total 9 cases of 21 birds on March 28 and 6 cases of 11 birds on March 29 were recorded during 7.30-12.08 a. m. (278min.) and 6.45-9.07 a. m. (137min.): therefore 1.98 times and 2.64 times per hour respectively. But at noon, March 29, 12.40-15.42 p. m. (182min.), there was only one case of trespassing. 5. On April 9 (14th day of incubation), there were still 4 cases, 6 birds of trespassings, during 5.05-7.01 a. m. (116min.), 2.04 times per hour, but no case was observed on May 1 (14 days after hatching) between 8.45 a. m. -12.02 p. m. (197min.) and only 2 cases on May 2, 4.45-6.29 a. m. (104min.) (1.15 times/h). 6. However, the female's defensive impulse is raised toward later incubation to nestling periods. Thus, the female would suddenly fly out of the nest, with attacking notes, to chase the intruders away, and on April 9 even flew to distant (750m. from nest) territory border. Moreover, she was observed on May 1 and 2, to chase smaller birds, the bulbul Hypsipetes amaurotis and blue-winged magpie Cynopica cyana from last year's nesting tree adjacent to her nest tree of this year. 7. On the other hand, the male, who often positively defended by pursuing trepassers, even by aerial fighting in some cases, during early incubation period when the female closely sat in nest without noticing the trespassers, got conservative in defense as the female's defensive attitude was strengthened toward later incubation period, and now he only assisted her or watched her with warning notes. He was even indifferent to trespassers if he was busy in his job of food searching. Thus, the territorial defense of the pair was well balanced to be effective according to the breeding stage, territorial maintenance and food securance in correlation with the sexual division of labor. 8. In incubation period, especially early in the morning, the male works hard for food search widely, but usually within about 400m. from the nest, to prepare stored food on buildings, under eaves of houses, or in trees (hidden by plucked leaves) and under stone (hidden by fallen leaves).
1. As appears in Tables 1-2, the number of species and individual birds sighted in the census generally shows a decreasing tendency as the census was progressing from Seocheon area where the forest is suffering a severe damage by pine needle gall-midges, through Kochang area where forests are suffering an average affliction, to Muan area which suffered a severe forest damage but it now much recovered from the affliction. In each of these areas, more species and individuals of birds are sighted in a red pine forest than in a black pine forest. In general, more species of birds are sighted in October than in November because of the arrival of transients, while in November large flocks of a few species of winter visitors arrive in the census areas for wintering showing a high population density. 2. Typically dominant species in the census areas are the 6 species of permanent residents-Great tit, Jay, Turtle dove, Crow tit, Yellow-throated bunting and Greenfinch; the 3 species of winter visitors-Siskin, Brambling and Golderest; and several species of transients such as Dusky thrush, Tristram's bunting and Chestnut bunting. These dominant species of birds have a feeding activity closely related to pine needle gall-midges. A survey of insectivorous birds previously conducted by Ko et al. in 1969 reports that the majority of these bird species feed on pine needle gall-midges also. 3. Jay is dominant in red pine forests and Greenfinch is dominant in black pine forests. 4. Early morning plot censuses usually sight more species and individual birds than plot census carried out later in the morning.
1. This paper reports the distribution and migration of Pterodroma inexpectata and Pterodroma solandri in the North Pacific based on the data collected by the authors during three cruises in 1974 and 1975. 2. Field descriptions of the two species are given. 3. P. inexpectata is a cool current species, appearing to be scattered widely in small groups along the Subarctic Front after finishing its migration, where the average surface water temperature was 10°C in summer. The highest densities were reached over waters of 8-10°C, off the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula. 4. Some individuals of P. inexpectata seen in May from 40°N to 45°N were more solitary when travelling, moving steadily northward with fast and directional flight, which suggested a migration through open seas into the most suitable temperature zone for them. Although some individuals had already arrived in the Subarctic zone in May, peak numbers were reached in July and August. 5. P. solandri was also encountered several times near and within the Subarctic Front. About 490 birds were seen from 5 May to 16 May, 1974. The large number of sight records of birds identified as belonging to the species indicate the existence of a regular migration to the Northwest Pacific.
1) Japanese White stork (Ciconia ciconia boyciana) has newly appeared in Bibai, Hokkaido during the period from the 16th of September. Thereafter a stork has been in Hakodate, from 19th of November through 15th of January, 1977. 2) In Aomori Pref., a stork has appeared in the Tsuruta-Goshogawara area on the 5th and 6th of October and in Hodomari during the period from 30th of October to 7th of November. 3) During the same period, a stork has been in the rice field of Kahoku-machi, Miyagi Pref. from the 21th of October to the present (Dec. 20th). 4) In Akita Pref., two storks have separately inhabited in Omonogawa-machi and in Yuwamachi. Both inhabiting areas of storks are wide rice field near the Omonogawa river (Figs. 2, 3 and 4). 5) Total number of storks inhabiting in both Hokkaido and Tohoku is at least four at present (Dec. 20th 1976). 6) Storks in Akita may have fed on fish, shellfish and other small animals in the small irrigation channels in the rice field. 7) Tarsus of the stork found in Omonogawa-machi was reddish, whereas that of the other found in Yuwa-machi was brown. 8) The stork found in Omonogawa machi was resting in the rice field from the sunset till 22:30 on December 18th, but it is not sure where the stork usually rests at the night in both areas.