This article describes the present situation in which the two species, Nipponia nippon and Ciconia ciconia boyciana, seem to subsist in eastern parts of the Asian Continent, the description here being based on a number of papers and reports published recently in the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, and Korea. The Japanese Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) seems to have died out in the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. The last observation record in the Soviet Union (in Kliuch Zakharofskii District) dates from 1940, and that in the People's Republic of China (in Yungchi, Shensi Province) from 1957: and since then no observation has been reported in either country. 1. In the Korean peninsula, however, this species seems to be still surviving. Some individuals were occasionally observed even after 1965, and the most recent observation report dates from 1974. These individuals may have strayed off from their breeding areas in the north down to the plains in the central parts of the peninsula. The exact location of their breeding area is unknown, but most probably in seems to be somewhere on the southern slopes of the Changpaek Mountains. 2. The Japanese White Stork (Ciconia ciconia boyciana) is still breeding in large numbers within the territory of the Soviet Union. Their habitat is a vast area stretching from east to west over 1, 000km (from the valley of the Zeya River to the coast of the Japan Sea) and from north to south over 600km (from Lake Bolon on the lower Amur to Lake Khanka in the south of Primorskaya). In the People's Republic of China, some individuals may be found on the left bank of the Ussuri. During the wintertime, only a very small number of individuals migrate to the Korean peninsula and to Japan to winter there, while the majority go down to winter in areas on the lower Yangtze or in Fukien Province. Such being the case, the protection and preservation of this precious species Ciconia ciconia boyciana is only feasible when we secure the cooperation of the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. To protect this species in international cooperation is the present writer's arden desire. In this connection he wants to call the attention of hunters to the deplorable fact that some of the very few starkswhich we strongly urge hunters and hunter's groups to reflect seriously upon such senselessness and immorality, which may well be called a national disgrace.
1, From 21st to 27th April, 1973, ecological status in breeding season of Okinawa Woodpecker or Noguchigera (Sapheopipo noguchii) was surveyed mainly in Mnts. Yonaha and Iyu. This research was supported by the Environmental Agency of Japanese Government. 2. Although Noguchigera had been formerly distributed south to the northern slopes of Mt. Nago of central part of Okinawa Island, the southern limit of its present distribution was determined at Mt. Iyu area. 3. Two breeding pairs of Noguchigera showed that they had a certain foraging range, but this was not considered to be a distinct defended territory. 4. Judging from the behaviors of a pair observed in Mt. Yonaha, Noguchigera is most active in this season in early morning (5:30 to 7:30) and in late afternoon (16:00 to 19:00). In the midday time, Naguchigera was feeding quietly, coming out to open deforested area, but it was more actively foraging in undisturbed thick forest. 5. The drammings of Noguchigera were mainly heard in early morning (5:00 to 7:00), and in late afternoon (16:30 to 19:30). Sometimes, we heard its drammings also in the midday at part of the feeding area, but these midday drammings were considered to be the hummerings for feeding on the dead branch. 6. It is thought that thick forest with dense fog is the most suitable habitat for the nesting of Noguchigera, and therefore, its original living environment. Such thick and humid forests are widely preserved in natural conditions on Mt. Iyu, especially in the Training Area of the United States Marines. 7. The breeding season of Noguchigera is between February and June. This bird builds its nest in half-dead old trees newly excavating the trunk of Castanopsis cuspidata, Machilus Thunbergii, but doesn't use to tally dead tree. 8. We attempted to estimate population density of Noguchigera, compareing with several published estimations of this bird population (Hachisuka et al 1953, Kuroda 1971, Short 1973, and Ikehara et al 1975). 9. We have discussed how should we do to protect the Noguchigera endemic to so small area only on Okinawa Island and how should we preserve the habitat of this bird.
1. This second report treats of the classification of the Japanese forest bird communities in winter on the basis of the structure and similarity analyses of line census data (40 plots) collected by the author and others. 2. The similarities of the bird communities in forests or other localities were analysed by using Whittaker's index of association. And finally, eleven types of bird communities were classified by the grouping of plots with about 50% similarity. In this paper, the coniferous forest in the subalpine zone is not treated. 3. The similarities of the winter bird communities among eleven types showed the same trend as in the breeding season. Namely, the similarity between the types in the temperate zone and those in the subtropical zone are low, whereas the similarity among the types in each zone is high. 4. The dominance ratio of winter visitor bird group is at most 18% in the temperate zone and is lower in the other zone. 5. The eight species, namely Aegithalos caudatus, Parus major, Parus montanus, Parus ater, Hypsipetes amaurotis, Regulus regulus, Sitta europaea and Emberiza cioides, are recongnized to be vasic constituents in the winter woodland bird community in Japan. 6. The eleven types of winter bird communities are hypothesized as follow; and each bears the names of the three species which comprise chief dominant species in each types. A. Ever green coniferous forest at the lowland in Hokkaido Regulus regulus-Parus palustris-Parus ater Association B. Pan-mixed forest in Hokkaido Parus ater-Parus montanus-Sitta europaea Association C. Deciduous broad-leavedforest at the lowland in Hokkaido Parus montanus-Sitta europaea-Picus canus Association D. Mature deciduous broad-leaved forest at the Fagus crenata zone in Honshu Parus montanus-Sitta europaea-Aegithalos caudatus Association E. Larix leptolepis plantation in northern Japan Aegithalos caudatus-Parus ater-Parus major Association F. Young deciduous broad-leaved forest at the Fagus crenata zone in Honshu Aegithalos caudatus-Emberiza cioides-Parns montanus Association G. Ever green coniferous forest at the temperate zone in northern Honshu Parus ater-Aegithalos caudatus-Regulus regulus Association H. Open mixed forest of coniferous and broad-leaved trees at the lowland temperate zone. Aegithalos caudatus-Emberiza cioides-Regulus regulus Association I. Open mixed forest of coniferous and broad-leaved trees at the subtropical zone Hypsipetes amaurotis-Carduelis sinica-Emberiza cioides Association J. Inland ever green forest at the subtropical zone Hypsipetes amaurotis Parus major-Aegithalos caudatus Association. K. Seacoast ever green forest at the subtropical zone Hypsipetes amaurotis-Zosterops japonica-Parus major Association (alphabets coincide with Table 5)
The growth of ten nestlings of Pariah Kite raised under natural conditions during 50-75 days of nestling period was studied. Weekly measurements of weight and four body part (culmen, tarsus, middle toe and longest primary) were recorded. The increase in weight was higher during the 2nd and 3rd week, but in the 6th week, the weight decreased considerably. It was found that the growth of the tarsus and middle toe was similar to that of body weight. The development of culmen was at a uniform rate throughout the nestling period. The longest primary reached the highest rate of growth between 22nd to 35 days of age. Motor development and gross morphological changes in the young Pariah Kites were studied from hatching to 50 days of age and it was found that the motor development of the young Pariah Kites proceeded at a rapid rate. At the time of hatching the chicks were feable and weak, but after 15 days, they became strong enough to defend themselves by biting and attacking. The prospotiles were replaced by mesoptiles between 11 to 15 days. Feather broke out of skin between 12 to 14 days whereas in Red Kites (Milvus milvus) the feathers broke out at the age of 20 days. (Brown & Amadon 1968). Although the youngs started flapping their wings at about 30 days of age, they were not actually able to fly till they were 40 days of age. Food consumption of the young Pariah Kites raised in captivity was recorded weekly and on the basis of average food consumption it was estimated that a young Pariah Kite consumed 5.550kg of food during 42 days.