Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martius martius) inhabited only in Hokkaido, Japan, but Kawaguchi (1935) newly captured the above species in Mt. Hachimantai, Akita Prefecture, northern Honshiu, Japan. This fact is very important to the discussion of the geographical distribution of birds. After the finding of a Black Woodpecker by Kawaguchi (1935), it has not been found in anyplace in Honshiu for a long time, but Mr. Kunichiyo Shoji found a nest of this bird near the Taiheiko at the foot of Mt. Moriyoshi in 1970. Furthermore, Izumi (1975) observed and recently took some pictures of a male of this species in a deforested area of Fagus crenata forest in Mt. Moriyoshi. Thereafter, we have made on ecological and behavioral study of this species in Fagus crenata forest and deforested areas. Especially we have studied the feeding behaviors of this species in forest and deforested areas from April through October, in 1975 and in 1976. We found some big holes of Fagus crenata and Pterocarya rhoifolia trees excavated by this bird for feeding in winter season. On the basis of the results of the present study, we have discussed what we should do to protect the Black Woodpecker that is the most valuable and rare species in northern Honshiu Japan, and how we should preserve its habitat in connection with forestry.
In 1977 the authors had an opportunity to examine the specimens of Mallophaga collected from a Japanese White Stork, Ciconia ciconia boyciana Swinhoe, 1976 captured in Akita Pref., Japan. They were identified with three species: Colpocephalum zebra Burmeister, 1838, Neophilopterus incompletus (Denny, 1842), and Ardeicola ciconiae (Linne, 1758); and none of these species has been recorded in Japan. Therefore the new descriptions and illustration of these three species will be given in the present paper.
Histoenzymological profiles have been studied of the feather-forming tissues in the Blue Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) under functional athyroidism induced by thiouracil feeding. Feathers were plucked from the ventrum covering the pectoral and abdominal tracts. In control birds, as well as those under replacement therapy, new feathers emerged outside the follicles on the 7th day after such plucking and were fully formed by the 30th day. In the experimental birds, these two phases of feather development were delayed and seen on the 25th and 60th days respectively. Activities of alkaline and acid phosphatases; glucose-6-phosphate, succinate, malate and lactate dehydrogenases (G-6-PDH: SDH; MDH & LDH) during various stages of feather development in the birds under the three different conditions were also evaluated histochemically. Acid phosphatase and LDH activities were not affected adversely by athyroidism, but those of alkaline phosphatase, G-6-PDH, SDH and MDH, all recognised as essential for supporting normal development of feathers, were significantly reduced. It is suggested that athyroidism retards feather development through adverse metabolic effects exerted as a result of decreased activities in a number of key enzymes.
1. This paper describes nesting- and foraging-sites of Reed Bunting E. schoeniclus and Ussurian Yellow-breasted Bunting E. aureola in the breeding season. Observations were made in the summer 1974 at Koshimizu in eastern Hokkaido. The area of study was about 11 ha. 2. The vegetation-type of the study area was as follows: A; pached willows (1.2m average hight), B': fallen reed near waters, B: reed (average hight 1.8m), C: mixture of reed and other forbs (hight 0.6-1.4m), D: mugworts (hight 0.8-1.5m), E: low grass (average hight 0.4m), F: Alymus mollis grass (hight 0.5-0.8m), G: Rosa rugosa bush (hight 0.5-1.2m), H: Malus baccata bush (hight 1.8-3.0m), I: bareground and J: pasture. 3. The arrival of E. schoeniclus at study area was two weeks earlier than thatof E. aureola, but the breeding started at almost the same date. 4. The nesting-site of the two species were in or near B-type of vegetation (E. schoeniclus) and in the C-type (E. aureola), respectively. 5. The spatial distribution of foraging sites E. schoeniclus tended to concentrate in B-type (dominant reed Phragmites), while E. aureola foraged extensively over the study area and relatively large portions of E-type of vegetation (low grasses). 6. Both species foraged on the ground where therewere a lot of deadplant cover (E. schoeniclus 90.3%, E. aureola 94.5%). However, there was a great the difference between the vegetation types that both unilized for foraging was great. The extent of utilization of type B by E. schoeniclus was extremely great (59.50%), while the type E was used much less. In contrast, E. aureola frequented the foraging grounds to utilize B and C types to a similar extent. Foraging on plants were frequently seen (E. schoeniclus 9.7%, E. aureola 5.5%). E. schoeniclus alone foraged on Aand B types. This species showed a behavior of moving up and down on the stem of B-type plants, while such a movement was never recognized in case of E. aureola. The difference in the extent of utilization of B-type between E. schoeniclus and E. aureola might be attributed to thedifference of the foraging habit.
1. From 18 to 27 November 1976, I stayed in Chichijima and Hahajima of the Ogasawara Islands, and observed land-birds. 2. During that time, I visited various habitats in an attempt to observe as many species as possible, and identified 31 species, including seabirds observed on the island. 3. Species accounts are presented. New sight records in the Ogasawara Islands were Threskiornis melanocephalus, Fulica atra and Calidris alpina.
A particular female Whooper Swan Cygnus c. cygnus, wintering at the well known swan and other waterfowls resort, lake Hyoko, was kept under observation in 1976-77 winter. Here the swans and waterfowls are well tamed by artificial feeding. This particular female arrived at Hyoko in late December with her mate and 2 cygnets. In my first observation in December, her crown seemed to be somewhat unkempt, but it was not so curious. As the time went by her crown feathers became longer. This changing process is shown by Plates 13-16.
During the period covered by this report, 56, 062 birds of 174 species were banded at the thirty banding stations which are scattering over 17 prefectures from the northernmost part of Hokkaido to the western end of Yamaguchi Prefecture (see Fig. 1 and Table 1.) The numbers of birds banded and re-caputured by banding station are shown respectively in Table 2, and Table 3. Birds which were banded at a banding station and caught again at the same area next season or thereafter are called here 'returns'. During this period, a total of 2, 303 returns of 24 species was recorded. The data of returns are shown by individual bird, and by bird banding station. Recoveries of birds banded are totaled to 206 birds of 26 species of which 74 individuals of 13 species were reported from abroad, but only one domestic recovery of the banded abroad was obtained during the period. Among the above recoveries, the specially interested are described under the item 'Notable Recoveries'. In the explanation to the recoveries, the widely believed migration route of thrushes and buntings right across the Japan Sea is questioned by the author because of no evidence from bird banding that supports the hypothesis.