国際バカロレア(以下IB)の初等教育プログラム(以下PYP)は「概念-操作」カリキュラムである。PYPの「概念-操作」カリキュラムが、他の構成主義の学びの方法に対してたいへん優れているのは、その道具立てがしっかりしているためである。この道具立ての一つである「概念に基づく学び」(concept based learning)はとりわけ重要なものであるが、八つの「概念」は、相互の間の関係が規定されていない。そこで、諸概念との関係や、その位置づけと役割と限界を明らかにした、ヘーゲルの論理学の「概念論」の「主観的概念」における「判断論」を認識論的に読み直すことにより、PYPの諸概念の役割と限界と相互の関係を認識の深化のプロセスの中に位置づけようと考える。そして、その準備作業として、まず、ヘーゲルの判断論を認識論的に概観してみたい。そのためには、特殊の役割に注目して判断論を理解しなくてはならない。
Switzerland is well known for being the founding father of the International Baccalaureate but it is also well known for the educational mentality of solidarity. We can embrace the power of their solidarity from reading their motto,"Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno", can be translated from Latin to English as "One for All, All for One" (Le News. 2015). Switzerland is also extremely famous for having four national or official languages which represents their respect for diversity. It was because of this motto or mentality they survived World War II. They demonstrated Effective Evidence - Based Control and Defense in "warfare" by not allowing any war planes fly over their country. In other words, during World War II they decided they had "no Allies" but "all enemies" so without discrimination they shot at every plane that flew over their sky including both the German and the United States Air Forces (Helmreich, 2000). The neutrality of Switzerland was assured by an Effective Evidence - Based Strategy of evolutional and progressive mentality. They found that in a materialistic and capitalistic world, they needed to collect and guard the world's finance by establishing the Swiss Bank. They learned that the strongest religion on earth is "money" and "greed". They learned that money has a tendency to quench our thirst for greed and banks have become humanity's churches to worship the accumulating digits in our bank accounts. They learned that protecting the wealth of the rich was the best way to defend their country. In other words, it would be literally insane to go after the Swiss because they have the bank accounts as an ultimate "hostage". They proved this in World War II and their effective evidence based strategy continues today. What is even more unique is that in 2013, Switzerland announced their next Effective Evidence - Based Strategy in "welfare" instead. They surprisingly announced, "Switzerland's Proposal to Pay People for Being Alive" in the "The New York Times". The life style of Switzerland triggered other governments to rethink their education policies under the concept of civics (Lowrey, 2013). Last year, in November 2014, the United States Department of Education published their new education policy. The policy title was "Effective Professional Learning Strategies and Their Use in Future Ready Districts" (Duncan, 2014). The policy was published to encourage researchers to be effective professionals teaching students within the realm of civic education. The purpose was to establish educational readiness for educators to use in the future. This policy was originally established for all the districts and states within the United States but the policy has now taken a wider turn. The policy now includes countries abroad. The Switzerland's motto,"Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno", has influenced UNESCO, the UN, and the EU, especially Oxford University, to adopt this educational policy (Sylva, Retrieved: July 1, 2015). The policy discusses about Effective Learning or Evidence-Based Practices that can be used in reflective learning to foster citizen education both locally and internationally. This paper will discuss about the historical evolution from Civil Education, to Citizen Education, to Active Learning, and to the Effective Learning Strategies that has just begun, in 2015, which is also known as Evidence-Based Practices. The paper will also discuss about curriculum design and the future endeavors of the language curriculum in Japan.
This paper is a linguistic critical analysis by reflecting upon Robin Tolmach Lakoff's sociolinguistic analysis within her brilliant understanding of linguistics in her book, "The Language War". She portrays her understanding of linguistics though current events in time. She discusses about how politics and the people are entwined within the "Language War". Although her book was written in the year 2000, we are continuing her theory. We will add new current event issues to her theory while reflecting along with her book. According to Professor Lakoff, the purpose of linguistics is to translate and interpret the meanings of events for the next generation. Therefore, the writer of this article will follow Professor Lakoff's strategies while explaining past issues toward recent issues that are occurring in the news so we can understand the meaning of the "Language War". We must first look at the "Language War" in the testimony of violence within African American Blues, Jazz, and Spirituals. African American Blues, Jazz, and Spirituals are historical voices, resources, databases of witnesses, and victims of the past. These voices screamed out the inequality of generations. In a way, they are still surviving a "Language War" even today. They screamed for help in protest and yet due to those who perpetuated the violence of segregation, intimidation, and discrimination that took place, "no one" could help them but continued to avoid the problem. It was as if they were absent apathetic bystanders in denial and neglect. The reason is because prejudice and bigotry became the thorn of evil stuck in between the heart of empathy to produce apathy. Those who perpetuated violence under the power of mass persuasion acted in collective behavior. To understand the meanings and the backgrounds of many of these exquisitely deep profound lyrics or language of Blues, Jazz, and Spirituals, we must also understand the history of what happened to the African Americans. The United States is often viewed as a melting pot due to the history of the settlers who were faced with the difficulties in assimilating into the European society. However, these same apathetic amnesiac settlers then colonized the American Indians and their land to build what they thought was a paradise with slavery. Professor Robin Tolmach Lakoff, coined the process of what America was caught up in as the "Language War". In this "Language War", no one understood the cycle of harassment which just continued like a domestic violence. According to Professor Lakoff, the "Language War" triggered the importance of the civil rights movement in the late 60s. Out of the blues came forth a muse. Her name was Billie Holiday. This report is also to acknowledge the 100th year commemoration of the memory of Billie Holiday for the power of her voice gave birth to civil action that fought that Language War.