KAGAKU KOGAKU RONBUNSHU
Online ISSN : 1349-9203
Print ISSN : 0386-216X
ISSN-L : 0386-216X
Volume 18 , Issue 5
Showing 1-36 articles out of 36 articles from the selected issue
  • Masashi Momonaga, Ken Onishi, Hisatoyo Yazawa
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 553-561
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Crystallization of polymorphic form β of sodium cefazolin having desired powder characteristics was studied. Selective crystallization using the solubility differences in water -solmix solutions was found to produce crystals of the β form, stable both physically and chemically. Additional studies using crystallization to control the crystal habit were made by the addition of a small amount of compounds having the structure of diaminocarboxylic acids similar to sodium cefazolin, or amino acids such as L-argine and L-lysine.
    This crystallization produced crystals suitable for vial and capsule medicines.
    Furthermore, it was found that control of particle size and distribution, as well as scale -up, was possible by application of the Z parameter defined as the power consumption ratio of agitation.
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  • Ichiro Naruse, Toshio Inoue, Matsushige Sakai, Kiyoshi Yasui, Masanobu ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 562-569
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To detect oil leakage in a dynamo or transformer, a direct and simple method is proposed in this study. The oil leakage detector was manufactured and tested as a labo -scale experiment. Sample insulation, lubrication and control oils were used. Based on the results obtained, the detector was applied to a practical dynamo and transformer. To study the coloring mechanism of the detector, important chemical species included in those oils were identified by using an FID gas chromatograph, a GC mass -spectral analyzer and a nuclear magnetic resonance analyzer.
    Labo -scale experiments showed that a detector combining a coloring matter with a developed color was usable for leakage detection of the three kinds of oil used. Water did not interrupt the oil leakage signal detected. From measurements of detail chemical properties the key coloring component was an aromatic proton. Before doing practical tests such the safety of the detector as the electric resistance, the destructive voltage of insulation and the temperature characteristics was confirmed in advance. The detector was able to defect oil leakage in practical use.
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  • Motokazu Kikuchi, Norikuni Yanagihara, Tetsuo Miyamoto, Mikio Kanzaki, ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 570-575
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The flow properties of whipped cream were measured under pressurized conditions by use of a specially designed capillary tube viscometer. The flow curve was expressed well by the Herschel-Bulkley model and all parameters of the model became functions of pressure. It was found that viscosity decreased with increasing pressure and that the flow properties tended to approach those of a Newtonian fluid. By using these results, it was possible to explain the peculiar feature of pressure distribution alongthe transport line of whipped cream and to estimate the friction loss.
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  • Yasuo Koseki, Hideaki Kurokawa, Katsuya Ebara, Hitoshi Sato, Toshihiko ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 576-583
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To evaluate a performance of a water purification system, ultrapure water qual-ities were measured using conventional indexes and a new index, total solid (TS), denoting total impurities remaining after evaporation.
    Tested ultrapure water was good enough for cleaning water for 16 Mbit wafers production according to an evaluation using conventional indexes, but it had a few impurities as indicated by the TS index.
    From data analysis using the TS value and TOC (total organic carbon) value, it was thought that impurities dissolved in ultrapure water from each component in the ultrapure water process line, and that they differed from that in pure water supplied to this line.
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  • Hiroyo Matsumoto, Akihiro Hamasaki, Norio Shioji, Yoshihiro Kita, Shui ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 584-592
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The closed ecological life support system (CELSS) is an important technology in space development. We performed fundamental experiments on a small CELSS with consisted of a carp-artificial gill-chlorella system.
    The three-layer filtration and adsorption system with nonwoven fabrics, activated carbon and zeolite was found to be effective in treating water in a fish habitation vessel.
    The overall mass transfer coefficient of an artificial gill was estimated for actual liquid by the reported method for a demineralized water system. Also, a gill consisting of hydrophobic microporous membrane was ascertained to have long durability.
    The O2 concentration in the system increased continuously, because the ratio of the carp respiration quotient to the chlorella assimilation quotient was larger than 1. It was also found that the behavior of these dissolved gases are represented by the mathematical model proposed here.
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  • Yasuyuki Watanabe
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 593-599
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    Nucleation characteristics of NaCH3COO · 3H2O melt (m. p. 331 K) with fifteen kinds of sodium oxysalt, added respectively, were investigated by a method of continuous cooling at a constant rate of 1 K/min. The superheating temperatures for melting prior to the cooling were varied in a range from 12 to 34 K. The added oxysalts showed remarkable effects of acceleration on the nucleation of the melt. But they became inactive by superheating beyond a certain temperature (upper limiting temperature). The upper limiting temperature of the melt with Na2SeO3 was a constant value of 28 K for additions of more than 0.8 mol %. No relationships between the nucleation characteristic of the melt with oxysalt added in a given amount of 3 mol% and the chemical structure of the oxysalt's anion or the atomic weight of the central element of the anion were recognized. It was suggested that the upper limiting temperature was related to the interfacial energy of the NaCH3COO · 3H2O cluster generated in the supercooled melt by inactivation, the critical radius for nucleation of the melt on the activated condition and the solubility of the oxysalt in water.
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  • Tomohide Watanabe, Yong Chen, Ichiro Naruse, Masanobu Hasatani
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 600-606
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The local and the average heat transfer coefficients between gas and solid particles in a circulating fluidized bed were estimated by temperature profiles by use of the heat balance equation. Characteristics of interfacial heat transfer were studied on an experimental basis.
    The local heat transfer coefficient showed high value near the bottom of the riser. Above this elevation the local heat transfer coefficient gradually decreased to a constant value. The coefficient is influenced by a change in slip velocity between gas and solid particles. The average heat transfer coefficient was well correlated with the particle Reynolds number with slip velocity. The Nusselt number obtained in the circulating fluidized bed condition was low comparing with that in the pneumatic conveying and bubbling fluidized bed conditions. The Nusselt number decreased with an increase in total particle hold -up in the riser. These results suggest that heat transfer between gas and solid particles in the circulating fluidized bed condition depends on the solid particle behavior and gas flow characteristics.
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  • Atsushi Shono, Masahide Sato, Mitsunori Hozawa
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 607-615
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The effects of sulfate ion and Al ion on extraction equilibrium and rate of Ga with 2-bromo decanoic acid (2BDA) were studied to estimate the influence of these substances on extraction of Ga using liquid surfactant membrane (LSM) containing 2BDA. The following points were confirmed. The extraction equilibrium of Ga-2BDA system is influenced by sulfate ion and Al ion ; when sulfate ion coexists, the distribution ratio and the extraction rate of Ga are decreased because of formation of Ga-sulfate complex. On the other hand, the distribution ratio is increased when Al ion coexists. The rate -determining step in the extraction of Ga by LSM is diffusion of the Ga-2BDA complex in the organic phase or interfacial reaction between Ga and the extractant. Thus sulfate ion and Al ion influence the extraction of Ga in the LSM system.
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  • Toyokazu Yokoyama, Hiroshi Usui, Genji Jimbo
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 616-621
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The effects of fluid viscosity on ball movement and the initial rate of grinding of a two-dimensional vibration ball mill were investigated by means of a numerical calculation method called the “discrete block method” and image analysis with a video tape recorder as well as grinding tests of glass beads.
    Simulation of ball movement was made possible by introduction of a correction factor for the effects of wall and liquid flow to estimate drag force. It was found that the intensity of ball collisions decreased drastically when the fluid viscosity increased over 0.01Pa·s under the present experimental conditions with 12.7 mm balls, but their frequency did not change so much. The effective ball collision frequency, defined as the frequency of ball collisions whose intensity were larger than the strength of particles concerned, decreased with increasing viscosity. The decreasing rate of effective ball collision frequency increased with particle strength.
    Additionally, the initial rate of grinding of glass beads also decreased drastically when the fluid viscosity exceeded approximately 0.01Pa·s. Reasonable correlation was found between the effective collision frequency of balls obtained by the simulation and the initial rate of grinding as experimentally determined.
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  • Hee Joon Kim, Yasuyuki Egashira, Hiroshi Komiyama
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 622-628
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    Crystallographic orientation of ceramic films prepared by CVD methods causes significant deterioration of mechanical properties. This work was attempted to discover the factors that control the orientation in an atmospheric-pressure hot-wall CVD, in forming AlN from AlCl3 with excess NH3. The experiments were carried out in a wide range of operating conditions : temperature 700 to 950 °C, AlCl3 concentration 0.2 to 1.3 vol%, and gaseous flow rate 3 to 100 m·s-1. At 850°C. various film structures ranging from non-oriented polycrystalline with 100 nm size grains to completely oriented structure were prepared as functions of the above deposition conditions and longitudinal position in a reactor. However, the degree of orientation measured by XRD was a function solely of the film growth rate. The tendency to orientation becomes significant at lower growth rates, and non-orientated fine grain films were obtained at higher growth rates. Experiments made at reaction temperatures 700 °C to 950 °C show that the critical growth rate, GRCRT, which separates the orientation region from the non-orientation region is expressed as follows;
    GRCRT=400·exp (-E/RT) [m·hr-1]

    were E = 136 kJ · mol-1.
    Control of orientation is possible by combining this equation with knowledge of the growth rate.
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  • Mamoru Tomita, Chiaki Kuroda, Masaru Ishida
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 629-636
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    A recipe-driven autonomous distributed operation and management system for pipeless chemical batch plants was proposed. The process sequence with various characteristics of chemical plants is written in the form of a recipe that consists of several sub-parts describing each unit process. Each sub-recipe is allocated to a proper hardware unit during execution of a process in order to make the unit autonomous. Moreover, it is shown that the whole plant is appropriately operated only with local communication among the units concerned. And the instantiation of the recipe makes possible the generality of the recipe and the appropriate placing of knowledge and decision -making. Consequently, the operation and management system is realized not only with the advantage caused by the distribution, i.e., even load and the easiness of maintenance, but also with the consistency that is indispensable for chemical plants.
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  • Ko Higashitani, Takuya Yamamura, Yumiko Isshiki, Akiko Kage, Akihiko K ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 637-642
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    Composite particles are formed using negative and amphoteric monodispersed latices as the core and shell respectively, and the experimental conditions to gain maximum coverage of the surface of core particles with amphoteric particles and the mechanism of the deposition process are investigated. As the results, (1) the experimental conditions for forming the composite particles are clarified; (2) the maximum coverage of the core surface with amphoteric particles is found not to be greater than 0.3; and (3) the coverage is mainly determined by the strength of the repulsive force between deposited particles. The relation between the coverage and the zeta potential of com-posite particles is also clarified.
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  • Yasuyuki Yamamoto, Katsuji Goto, Hiroshi Ichimaru, Ichiro Naruse, Kazu ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 643-651
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    An optical method to measure particle and gas temperatures simultaneously and separately was proposed in order to study a combustion mechanism in pulverized coal combustion fields. The particle temperature was measured by high-speed two-color thermometry. The gas temperature was measured by an Na-D line reversal method. The CT method was used to (computed tomography) estimate the cross-sectional tem-perature distributions along the pulverized coal combustion field. Attenuation of radiation by the particles along the optical path was taken into account in the temperature calculation. The applicability of this method was demonstrated by computer simulations for artificial temperature and particle concentration distributions.
    The temperature distribution in the furnace was correctly obtained by the experimental projection data by means of the CT method. The experimentally obtained particle and gas temperature distributions showed that there existed a great difference between these two temperatures. In the volatile combustion region the particle temperature was higher than the gas temperature, and the fluctuation of particle temperature was also larger than that of gas temperature. In the char combustion region, on the other hand, the gas temperature became higher than the particle temperature.
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  • Shigeaki Kasaoka, Eiji Sasaoka, Tomoo Ichio, Masayo Sakamoto
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 652-658
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The development of a combined functional desulfurizing sorbent for hot gases after coal gasification has been carried out. In this work, natural iron ores [hematite (α- Fe2O3 system) and magnetite (Fe3O4 system)] and artificial α-Fe2O3 for comparison were investigated as removing sorbents of H2S. Basic measurements of desulfurizing reactivities were made using a flo-type packed-bed reactor under atmosphericpressure at 400500°C (mainly 400°C). The inlet gases were H2S (mainly 500 ppm) H2 (12.550%) -H2O (11.8, 19.3%) -N2 the total flow rate was 200 cm3N·min-1 per 0.5ml of each sorbent with average diameter of 1.0 mm, and the space velocity was 2.4×104h-1.
    The main results obatined were as follows. 1) The desulfurizing reactivities of iron ores were remarkably different by type and producing mine. However, by prereduction of iron ores to Fe system with H2 at 600700°C, the reactivities weredrastically elevated to be almost uniform. The apparent reactions in this case were expressed as Fe+ (4/3) H2O→ (1/3) Fe3O+ (4/3) H2 and H2S+ (1/3) H2 + (1/3) Fe3O4 → Fes+ (4/3) H2O. 2) By cyclical operation of the oxidation of FeS to iron oxides with O2 (5%) -H2O (11.8%) -N2 and the reduction with H2 as described in 1) at Ca.650°C, the desulfurizing sorbents were regenerated and used repeatedly.
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  • Jia-bing Wang, Reijiro Takahashi, Jun-ichiro Yagi
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 659-668
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    A mathematical model of a sludge melting furnace has been developed for obtaining the two-dimensional distribution of such process variables as velocities of solid, gas and liquid, and the rate of chemical reactions and of heat and mass transfer. The chemical reactions considered in this model were coke combustion and solution loss. In addition, drying, pyrolysis and melting processes of sludge were taken into account.
    Ergun's equation with the inertial term was used for the equation of motion of gas and a kinematic model was used for the equation of solid flow. For liquid flow in the packed bed, the flowing region was obtained by a dispersion-probability model, and then the liquid flow vector in the flowing region was computed by a continuous model derived on the basis of Darcy's equation. A staggered differencing technique on boundary-fitted curvilinear grids was used to compute transport phenomena in a sludge melting furnace having a complicated internal shape.
    The results computed by use of the finite difference method indicated very strong coupling between the gas flow, solid flow, liquid flow, temperature distribution and rate of reactions. In addition, the model estimated the dry zone formed in front of the gas inlet, drying zone and melting zone of sludge in the packed bed. The drying process greatly affected the temperature distribution.
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  • Hironao Ogura, Mitsutoshi Miyazaki, Hitoki Matsuda, Masanobu Hasatani, ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 669-676
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    To evaluate the enhancement effect of radially inserted fins on the overall reaction rate and the heat transfer rate in the cylindical particle-bed reactor of a lab-scale chemical heat pump using Ca (OH) 2 /CaO thermochemical reaction, two-dimensional (radial and circumferential) differential equations concerning both heat and mass transfer accompanied by exothermic hydration of CaO with steam were derived and solved numerically.
    The calculated results reproduced the experimental results fairly well with respect to temperature profile, reaction completion time, and exothermic heat amount released from the reactor. By this numerical analysis, two-dimensional profiles of both temperature and conversion in the reactant particle bed were predicted, and the effects of number, thickness and material of fin blades on reaction completion time were also studied.
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  • Yutaka Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki Totsuka, Tan Miwa, Shin-ichi Nakao, Shoji ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 677-683
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    Cross-flow filtrations of model suspensions including microorganisms and protein were carried out with polymer microfiltration membranes. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was mainly used as model protein, and three kinds of model microorganisms were employed : baker's yeast, E. coli and PMMA particles. The influence of various operating conditions, specific filtration resistance of cake layer and intermittent driving of the feed pump on permeate flux and solute rejection were studied.
    In these model suspensions, BSA was gradually rejected with filtration time in the same way. The steady-state flux obtained had an optimum pressure which gave a maximum permeate flux, and was hardly affected by feed concentration.
    A cake layer of microorganisms, which had a large permeate resistance, was formed on the membrane surface. This layer was subject to compaction with operating pressure, and its specific filtration resistance was the largest in the E. coli model suspension.
    It was also found that intermittent operation of the feed pump was very effective in restoring the membrane permeation rate.
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  • Takayuki Ohshima, Yuuji Kawase, Xiao-Li Zhang, Shinji Iijima, Takeshi ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 684-692
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    We cultured an Escherichia coli strain that harbors a recombinant plasmid containing E. coli galactokinase gene fused to λ phage pRpL tandem promoter, and temperature-sensitive phage cI 857 repressor gene which allows inducible production of galactokinase by temperature change. To determine optimum conditions for the enzyme production, we cultured this recombinant E. coli at several temperatures between 30 °C and 42 °C using a jar fermentor. We found that gene expression from the promoter was completely repressed at 30 °C and was efficiently derepressed at 42 °C. By the two-step culture method, in which the cell was grown at 34 °C and then the temperature was raised to 42 °C at a cell concentration of 21 kg-dry cells/m3 for induction of the gene expression, maximum productivity of the enzyme was obtained.
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  • Takayuki Ohshima, Xiao-Li Zhang, Shinji Iijima, Takeshi Kobayashi, Fum ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 693-700
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    We cultured an oversecretion inutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain which harbors a recombinant plasmid pNA3 containing mouse α-amylase gene fused to SUC2 promoter and signal sequence of 28kDa killer toxin and PGK terminetor. We found that gene expression from the promoter was efficiently derepressed in a medium containing lactic acid as a carbon source. When glucose and lactic acid coexisted in the medium, recombinant yeast grew, using glucose exclusively, and the enzyme was produced using lactic acid after complete depletion of glucose. To control lactic acid concentration at 10 kg/m3, we applied an on-line glucose and lactic acid monitoring and controlling system for jar fermentor culture of this recombinant yeast. By a combination of glucose and lactic acid as carbon sources, effective gene expression from SUC2 promoter could be achieved and 2.23 kat/m3 of a-amylase was produced.
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  • Toshinori Kojima, Takashi Odagiri, Masahiko Matsukata, Shigeru Yamada
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 701-707
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    It has been pointed out that polycrystalline silicon particles produced from monosilane by the fluidized-bed CVD method contain residual hydrogen that causes disturbance of flow in a crucible in the CZ process. In the present work, the residual hydrogen was desorbed from produced Si particles by heat treatment. The activation energy for the hydrogen desorption was determined by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. By FTIR, various types of Si-H bonds were found in the Si particles produced. The adsorbance area was decreased with increase in the desorbed hydrogen by TPD. From this relationship, the total amount of residual hydrogen was determined to be around 0.05% of the hydrogen contained in the reacted monosilane. The particle density of Si particles increased linearly almost up to the true density, with a decrease in the absorbance area of FTIR by the heat treatment.
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  • Toshiro Murase, Do-Wu Yang, Eiji Iritani
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 708-713
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The dynamic microfiltration behavior of high-viscosity slurry containing finesize solids is examined under constant pressure, using a rotating membrane filter with a ceramic cylinder. On the basis of an empirical correlation of flux-controlling parameters, a method of evaluating the effects of liquid viscosity on transient and steady filtration rates is studied.
    The rotating microfiltration of the viscous slurry proceeds on the principle of thin -cake filtration after operation begins, and has a common feature : gradual reduction initially, followed by a roughly uniform value of final flux. Based on the filtration rate equation with the dynamic coefficient defined as the ratio of cake resistance in unstirred and stirred filtration, it is shown that the liquid viscosity effects a remarkable variation in both the passage of filtrate through the membrane and the sweeping off of filter cake from the membrane. The time dependence of thin-cake resistance is related simply to a number of operational parameters, in view of the fact that the final equilibrium velocity can be estimated as a power-function of the shear stress acting on the cake surface and Ruth's coefficient of constantpressure filtration. It is also suggested that the relative motion between slurry and membrane, created by the high-speed rotation of the latter, can be efficiently utilized to achieve a high -flux filtration of the viscous liquid -solids system.
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  • Koji Maeda, Kunio Nagahama
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 714-722
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    Applying our new crystallization method to separation of xylene isomers, solidliquid equilibria (SLE) of the binary xylene isomer systems o-xylene+p-xylene and m-xylene+p-xylene were measured by both cooling curve and DSC methods. SLE data by these methods were consistent with each other. To learn the effect of a liquefied gas on the SLE for these binary systems, vapor -liquid -solid equilibria (VLSE) for the ternary systems liquefied gas (propane or chlorodifluoromethane [HCFC 22]) + binary xylene isomer systems were also measured by the cooling-curve method.
    The correlated results of these VLSE data using an activity coefficient equation showed that the liquefied gas component had no capability to shift the eutectic composition of the o-xylene+p-xylene system but could shift the eutectic composition of the m-xylene+p-xylene system. The quantitative effect of addition of the liquefied gas on the eutectic composition was explained by a thermodynamically derived equation.
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  • Hiroshi Yoshikawa, Masahiro Kato
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 723-728
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    Vapor-liquid equilibria for three binary systems -- hexane-cyclohexane, cyclohexane-methylcyclohexane, and cyclohexane-toluene -- were measured at 100kPa by use of the dew point -bubble point temperature method. From the experimental dew point and bubble point temperature curves, vapor -liquid equilibria were obtained. The liquid densities of the three mixtures were measured at 298.15K. The experimental vapor -liquid equilibrium data and liquid density behaviors were correlated with an equation of state.
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  • Hiroyuki Tanaka, Masahiro Kato
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 729-731
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for three binary systems containing acetylacetone and methanol, ethanol, or 1-propanol were measured at a pressure of 100 kPa in a recirculation still. The analysis of equilibrium composition was carried out by a gas chromatograph equipped with TCD. In general, acetylacetone is tautomeric, showing an equilibrium mixture of keto-form (30%) and enol-form (70%). In the present study, however, acetylacetone was treated as a pure substance. The experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data obtained were correlated by the Wilson equation with corrections for vapor-phase nonideality.
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  • Kenji Mishima, Masatoshi Sakemi, Masanori Nagatani, Setsuko Yonezawa, ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 732-739
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The electric conductivities of aqueous solutions containing a single salt (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CH3COOK, CaCl2, BaCl2 and AlCl3), two salts (NaCl?KCl, NaCl?CaCl2, NaCl-AlCl3, CaCl2-BaCl2, CaCl2 - AlCl3 and NaCl-CH3COOK), and three salts (NaCl -LiCl-KCl, NaCl-LiCl?CaCl2, NaCl?CaCl2?BaCl2, NaCl?CaCl2?AlCl3, CaCl2 - BaCl2-AlCl3, NaCl-CH3COOK-LiCl and NaCl-CH2COOK-CaCl2) were measured at 25°Cup to 0.3 mol·l-1 of the salt. The electric conductivities of the methanol-water and the ethanol-water solutions containing CH3COOK were also measured at 25°C up to 15 wt% of the salt.
    From the present experimental data, it is found that the linear relationship between the molar conductivity and the square root of concentration is valid in the dilute region and that the law of the independent migration of ions proposed by Kohlrausch for the limiting molar conductivity can be extended to aqueous solutions containing various salts. The electric conductivity of the methanol-water solution at the same concentration of potassium acetate is larger than that of the ethanol-water solution, probably due to the larger dielectric constant of methanol.
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  • Ikuho Yamada, Won-Hi Hong, Hideki Mori, Chizu Nakao, Fang-Zi Liu
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 740-743
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    A numerical method has been proposed for solving strongly nonlinear equations by improving the Wegstein method. The feature of the proposed method (modified Wegstein method, MWS) is to eliminate one of the direct iteration steps in the iterative calculation procedure of the Wegstein method with the purpose of reducing the C.P.U. time required. Applying MWS, an algorithm is proposed for calculating the dew point of a non-ideal system by means of simulataneous correcting of temperature and component activity coefficient. The superiority of the proposed method is shown by sample calculations of bubble and dew points for several examples.
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  • Yasuo Hirose
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 743-746
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    Steam is directly used as the bottom heat source of a distillation column in cases where water is the bottom waste. From the standpoint of reducing consumption of steam as a reboiler heat source, enthalpy analysis around the reboiler is important. A method for calculating the reboiler duty is presented. If the amount of steam is given, the bottom liquid rate is calculated from the column material balance. The enthalpy of steam is considered to be an unknown variable. In the Newton-Raphson algorithm the variable of the bottom liquid rate is replaced by the enthalpy of the steam. Some modifications of the residual functions are made in accordance with the above exchange of the unknown variables. The temperature of the steam is easily calculated from the steam enthalpy.
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  • Takao Igarashi, Kazuhisa Ohtaguchi, Kozo Koide
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 746-748
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The stability of bacterial β-Lactamase (bla) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing YEp vector was monitored at different temperatures. It was found that in all runs the loss of bla activity occurred during the late logarithmic-growth phase. This loss was activated at relatively high temperatures. A transient decrease in cell doublings was observed at the beginning of loss of bla activity, which is followed by approximately one doubling before the end of batch growth. This would appear to indicate that the loss of bla activity is closely related to growth regulation mechanisms of S. cerevisiae cells.
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  • Mayumi Tsukada, Masayuki Horio
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 749-752
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
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    The heat transfer coefficient between a bed and immersed bodies is an important parameter in determining the surface temperature of bodies which affects the rate of combustion, reaction, drying or heat treatment. In this paper the heat transfer coefficient was determined experimentally with a fluidized bed of 56.6 mm diameter for various kinds of bed particles (dp =0.140.55 mm), temperatures (Tb =2931123 K), and diameters of immersed bodies (ds =6.3519.05 mm). The following simple correlation for the maximum heat transfer coefficient was obtained :
    Nusmaxhsmax ds/ke=10 ds0.8 dp -0.5 (±20%)
    [ds, dp : m]
    where he is the effective thermal conductivity of the bed.
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  • Toshiyuki Yokota, Takuro Sugawara, Yasushi Ichikawa
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 752-756
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Porous alumina and magnesia particles were prepared by freeze-dry processing. Freeze dried particles from an aqueous metal salt solution have many pores formed by ice sublimation traces. The particles were calcined to form oxide particles, which still had a porous configuration. When the porous calcined particles were committed to a furnace they became porous ceramic particles. Various factors such as feed concentration of a metal solution, freezing temperature, firing temperature and hold time were investigated to determine how they affect the pore configuration of the particles. The relationships between compressive strength and porosity and between specific surface area and porosity were clarified.
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  • Naoki Furukawa, Wataru Okada
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 757-760
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study focuses on the effect of reaction temperature in the range from 343 to 368K on the neutralization rate of fatty acid in a coagulation particle made by the seed coagulation method from polymer latex.
    It was confirmed that, as reported in the previous paper, the unreacted coremodel can be applied at 343363K.
    The diffusion coefficient of calcium hydroxide in the ash layer has a maximum value at about 363K.
    This means that the diffusion of calcium hydroxide in the particle was hindered above 363K. This was thought to result from a decrease in porosity and pore diameter of the coagulation particle due to shrinkage of the coagulation particle by heat treatment.
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  • Yoshiyuki Endo, Yasuo Kousaka
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 760-763
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dispersion of aggregate particles consisting ofmono-dispersed PSL (polystyrene latex) particles of 0.5, 1 and 2 μm in diameter has been examined by use of an ejectorto which high-pressure N2 gas (max. 7.5 MPa) is supplied. Enhancement of dispersion of aggregates was observed as the critical pressure at the ejector throat outlet was increased. This is caused by the effect of increase in gas density at the ejector throat, which is expected from a theoretical analysis.
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  • Hiroyo Matsumoto, Akihiro Hamasaki, Shuichi Sato
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 763-766
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As a method of measuring oxygen production and consumption rates of Chlorella, a commercially available oxygen reaction monitor was applied. The method is simple and makes speedy measurement possible. The oxygen production rate of a flat algal culture vessel was estimated by the proposed method.
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  • Masahiro Goto, Takahiko Kakoi, Makoto Narisako, Kazuo Kondo, Fumiyuki ...
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 767-769
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Stripping reagents of molybdenum (IV) from an organic solution of molybdenumalkylphosphonic acid monoester complex were examined. It was clarified that aqueous solutions of polyhydroxyalcohol and saccharide are effective as stripping reagents in the above system. Among them, quantitative stripping could be attained by using a mannitol aqueous solution in the pH range above 4. The dependence on the concentration of mannitol and extractant was investigated. It was found that nonionic species of molybdenum forms aqueous -soluble complex with mannitol. From the experimental results, the stripping reaction of molybdenum with mannitol (L) was deduced as follows :
    MoO2R22HR+L+2H2O_??_H2MoO2L+2 (HR) 2
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  • Toshitaka Funazukuri, Kazuhiko Hari, Yasuhiko Seike, Noriaki Wakao
    1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages 769-772
    Published: September 10, 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Acacia chips cooked at 200°C for 1060 minutes were exploded in a small batch reactor with aqueous solution of ethanol of concentration from 061 wt%. The measurements of pulp yield and Klason lignin content in the exploded pulp indicated that the explosion with aqueous ethanol solution increased the amount of holocellulose retained. The exploded pulps were then bleached with H2O2 and alkali. Again it was found that more pulp and less lignin remained in the bleached pulp when the chips were exploded with aqueous ethanol solution than were obtained without ethanol.
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  • 1992 Volume 18 Issue 5 Pages e1
    Published: 1992
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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