KAGAKU KOGAKU RONBUNSHU
Online ISSN : 1349-9203
Print ISSN : 0386-216X
ISSN-L : 0386-216X
Volume 2 , Issue 6
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Keiichi Kato, Issei Nakamori
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 541-546
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Surface excess of DBS- (dodecylbenzene sulphonate ion) in dynamic equilibrium Γ, was measured by foam separation experiments in a continuous foam column at 35°C, using SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate) as surfactant and NaCl and MgCl2 as coexisting salts. The effect of coexisting salts on Γ was examined by employing various adsorption isotherms. Two methods were further proposed for calculating Γ in coexisting salts. One is the method combining the Davies adsorption isotherm with the Gouy-Chapman model of the diffuse double layer, and the other is the method using reduced concentration of surfactant by employing critical micelle concentration. The values of Γ's calculated by these methods were compared with the experimental ones in the cases of NaCl and MgCl2 as the coexisting salts. The calculated values of Γ's were in fairly good agreement with the experimental ones.
    Download PDF (1106K)
  • Takashi Nakane, Kenji Haraya, Masaji Matsuda, Hiroshi Yoshitome
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 547-551
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Reverse osmosis laboratory tests for the processing of various kraft pulping waste waters were performed with a batch type cell and ABCOR's AS-230 tubular modules.
    By the fundamental experiments with the cell, it was confirmed that colorless reusable waters could be obtained from wastes with high-salt-rejection membranes (>98.3 % for Na2SO4) at 40 kg/cm2. In those cases, all the rejections of U.O.D. (units of optical density at 280 nm) were well above 99 %. However, it was also found that the removal of the U.O.D. matter could be attained with low-salt-rejection membranes (about 20% for Na2SO4).
    Thereafter, low-pressure and low-salt-rejection reverse osmosis tests were conducted with the ABCOR's tubular modules. For the treatment of simulated waste of unbleached pulp wash effluent, 86 % of water recovery was achieved at 6 kg/cm2 with the rejection of the U.O.D. being about 97% at the end.
    Download PDF (773K)
  • Syouji Hirota, Keisuke Fukui, Masamoto Nakajima
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 552-555
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has usually been assumed that the overall growth rate of crystallization is determined by the relative rates of two processes occurring in series, viz., diffusion of solute from the bulk solution to the solution-crystal interface, followed by integration of the solute atoms or molecules into the crystal lattice. To determine the rates of two processes individually, direct measurements of the interfacial concentration must be made.
    Using the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer, the concentrations near the (111) face of a crystal and interfacial ones of aluminium potassium sulphate were measured at 30°C and the relations between interfacial concentration, supersaturation, solution velocity and rate coefficients were obtained.
    In addition, it was found that the optical method was useful in determining the solubility.
    Download PDF (2241K)
  • Noriaki Kubota, Tadao Kawakami
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 556-560
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A stochastic nucleation model is devised from solute cluster considering fluctuation in size. The structure sensitive effects on nucleation brought by a given number of active sites are also taken into account in the model.
    Experiments were carried out to measure the waiting time of nucleation from the filtered supersaturated solutions in 200 glass ampoules. The ratio of un-nucleated samples to total was correlated against the waiting time. The correlation agreed well with the equation obtained from the model, assuming only two kinds of active sites, and each of three parameters in it was correlated against supersaturation by a respective experimental equation.
    It became clear that the probability of nucleation in the model is equal to the nucleation rate by comparison of nucleation with random arrivals in queues.
    The treatment of nucleation in the literature was criticized, especially in the assumption of the inverse proportionality of nucleation rate to waiting time.
    Download PDF (991K)
  • Ken Toyokura, Natsunosuke Yago, Katsumi Yamazoe, Yoshio Aoyama
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 561-565
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new design method of classifying crystallizers (cone and cylindrical shaped types) is proposed on the basis of not only crystal growth rate, but secondary nucleation rate for potassium alum reported in the previous paper. Further, the method for estimation of the correlation between product size and production rate under the operational conditions of a fixed industrial crystallizer is also studied. The estimated values from the laboratory data of the crystallization of potassium alum are compared with data obtained from an industrial crystallizer that is actually operated. They agree fairly well, and as a result, it is suggested that about a hundred thousand times scale-up from data of a laboratory scale fluidized crystallizer to an industrial one may be possible by the use of the proposed method.
    Download PDF (882K)
  • Tasuku Nakai, Yasunori Yamamoto, Kazuo Miyake
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 566-571
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To clarify the mechanism of nucleation accompanying Ostwald ripening, aggregation and growth of the primary nuclei of CaCO3, formed by mixing aqueous solutions of CaCl2 and Na2CO3, were observed by using both a microscope on a slide glass and a Coulter counter in a stirred tank. The measurements of the aggregation rate and the shape and size distribution of aggregates were carried out with respect to the initial concentration of both solutions and revolution rate of a paddle type agitator. As the result of the experiments, it was clear that there are close relationships among these.
    Download PDF (7333K)
  • Sukekuni Mukataka, Jiroh Kobayashi
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 572-576
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rate equations with respect to cellular growth, glucose uptake and ethanol production are proposed in a typical alcohol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the rate equations, the inactivation of yeast cell by inhibitory effect of product is considered. The cell number, residual glucose and ethanol concentrations changing with time in a batch and in transient state cultivation initiated from batch to continuous run are simulated by the rate equations.
    Using the rate constants predicted from the experimental data in the batch culture, the proposed models illustrate fairly well the changes of microbial activities during the transient phase.
    Download PDF (887K)
  • Masaaki Nakamura, Gong Hong Hong, Katsuhiko Hioki
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 577-582
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In a freely slugging gas-solid fluidized bed, slug properties such as slug frequency, slug velocity, vertical slug length and slug spacing were measured by use of an electric capacitance plate and effects of various factors on slug behavior were experimentally investigated.
    It was shown that the slugging flow pattern was dependent on the type of gas distributor, the height from the bottom, superficial gas velocity and the particle size, but not affected by the bed diameter and the settled bed height.
    Slug properties were correlated with the operating conditions in the case of the slugging flow pattern having relative regularity.
    Download PDF (1013K)
  • Takashi Akehata, Kenji Ito, Atsuo Inokawa
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 583-588
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A two-flux model, the dilutely-dispersed phase model, is proposed to describe the light intensity profile in bubble-dispersed systems. The coefficients of scatter, transmission and absorption of a single dispersed sphere, indispensable in formulating the radiation balance equations for the systems, are theoretically derived, and useful charts thereof are presented.
    The light intensity profiles in a rectangular aerated cell was measured by CdS probes. The observed profiles were explained relatively well by the model, although radiation loss from the cell to environment was found to be unavoidable in the present type of apparatus.
    Download PDF (934K)
  • Teruo Takahashi, Yasuharu Akagi, Tamiya Kishimoto
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 589-594
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A ripple tray has been made of a perforated sheet with corrugations. In order to clarify the stable operational range of this tray, the velocities of flooding and incipient liquid stagnation were measured by using a 0.15 m diameter column. Also, liquid holdup on the tray and pressure drop of gas through the tray were measured. At stable operational range, the gas flow rate increases with the wave depth (H) of the corrugated sheet, and the liquid holdup and the pressure drop decrease with increase of H.
    It was found that these hydraulic performances were similar qualitatively to that of a sieve tray without downcomers. The common correlations for these performances containing H as the variable were obtained for ripple tray and sieve tray.
    Download PDF (874K)
  • Korekazu Ueyama, Terukatsu Miyauchi
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 595-601
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Navier-Stokes equations and the equations of continuity are intergrated with respect to time. When the time-averaging procedure is put into the spatial differentiation, it is necessary to introduce surface-residual terms due to the moving boundary of the two phases.
    The surface-residual terms for the substantial derivative terms in the Navier-Stokes equations and in the equations of continuity are naturally eliminated in carrying out proposed mathematical treatment.
    The interaction term between the two phases consists of the surface-residual terms of the stress tensor and the static pressure.
    Basic equations are considered for the flow of the gas and liquid phases in a bubble column which is long enough to have a constant flow pattern in the axial direction. The following results are obtained. 1. The meaning of the turbulent viscosity in a bubble column is expressed by a modified Boussinesq equation. 2. Axial gradient of static pressure is shown to be constant in the radial direction. 3. Calculated value of the mean gas hold-up by the use of the axial gradient of the static pressure at the wall is evaluated. The error of this value is less than 2 % for the reported data on bubble columns with the internal circulating flow.
    The proposed equations can similarly be applied to other apparatus with two phase flow, such as fluid beds and extraction columns.
    Download PDF (1006K)
  • Teruo Takahashi, Toshiro Miyahara, Itsuro Komoto
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 602-605
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bubble volumes formed at a single circular hole drilled in a pipe have been measured. The variables investigated are, gas flow rate, inclined angle of orifice, hole diameter, physical properties of liquids, and chamber volume. It is found experimentally that the bubble volume is affected by the inclined angle of orifice in the low gas flow rate region, and for the liquid of low viscosity under less than the critical value of the chamber number given by Tadaki et al. Furthermore, the analytical method presented in previous work has been applied to this region. The experimental values agree well with the analytical results. Also, this type of bubble formation is similar to that of the inclined flat plate orifice.
    Download PDF (610K)
  • Hidetsugu Nakamura, Toshihiro Hatamoto, Issei Nakamori
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 606-608
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To obtain fundamental data for concentration of dilute hydrogen peroxide solution by solvent extraction, distribution coefficients of hydrogen peroxide for various organic solvents were measured at 30°C. Then, selecting some representative organic solvents, solubility data and tie-line data of the systems hydrogen peroxide-water-organic solvent were obtained at 30°C.
    Download PDF (443K)
  • Akira Matsuda, Tsuyoshi Munakata
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 609-614
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pressure profiles in a single-tube test condenser with an angle of 4 degrees to the horizontal were measured at low operating pressures (0.22 mmHg). Vapor flow rate and coolant temperature were varied and Reynolds number and Mach number at the inlet of the condenser ranged from 391 to 2630 and from 0.076 to 1, respectively. Ethyl oxalate and methyl salicylate were used as test fluids.
    Pressure oscillations in the condenser occured at the lower pressures and higher condensation rates. As the vapor velocity at the inlet approached sonic speed, shock wave were observed in the condenser.
    Pressure profiles obtained when the inlet Mach number was less than 0.5 agreed well with those calculated from an analytical equation which is derived under the assumption that the vapor flow maintains a parabolic velocity distribution.
    Download PDF (1104K)
  • Nobuhiro Seki, Shoichiro Fukusako, Makoto Tanaka
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 615-620
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, drying under intensive radiant heat flux of a horizontal wetted porous layer, in which both gravity and capillary forces are acting, is investigated analytically in unsteady state to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the drying phenomenon or their characteristics over the entire drying period.
    Numerically predicted results for a hydrated porous layer clarify the respective roles of theoretical nondimensional parameters related to heat flux, capillary force, liquid and vapor diffusivities, heat and mass transfers and latent heat on the drying process.
    Download PDF (957K)
  • Kunio Kato, Wataru Sekiguchi, Minoru Uemoto, Tatsuo Tanaka, Noriaki Ku ...
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 621-640
    Published: November 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (4869K)
feedback
Top