KAGAKU KOGAKU RONBUNSHU
Online ISSN : 1349-9203
Print ISSN : 0386-216X
ISSN-L : 0386-216X
Volume 2 , Issue 5
Showing 1-25 articles out of 25 articles from the selected issue
  • Akihiko Murakami, Tsuneo Takahashi, Hiroshi Arai, Shoichi Yoshizawa
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 433-438
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Extraction of an organic acid in an organic solvent by the aqueous solution of caustic soda through the plane interface has been studied. MIBK and isobutanol were used as the organic solvents. The extraction rate, NA, increased with the initial alkali concentration, CB0, up to maximum NA, where CB0 became nearly equal to the initial concentration of the acid, GA0. Then NA decreased with CB0 and became constant when CB0 was more than twice GA0.
    These results may be explained as follows. The extraction rate is enhanced by the effect of the reaction in the range of CB0 below CA0. When CB0 is higher than CB0 the reducing effect by the depression of the interfacial turbulence on the extraction rate overcomes the enhancement effect of the reaction. Then the reaction takes place at the interface and the extraction rate becomes constant.
    A simple diffusion-mixing zone model was proposed. The effect of interfacial turbulence on the extraction rate was discussed on the basis of the model. As a result, NA calculated from the model was in good agreement with the experimental one.
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  • Mitsuharu Ide, Jiro Mada, Shigenori Kawabata, Hisashi Shinohara
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 439-444
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A liquid jet in which small solute bubbles are dispersed through a gas sucking type bubble generator is termed a “liquid jet containing small solute bubbles”. The performance of this liquid jet has been investigated.
    In the present work, the specific gas-liquid interfacial area a and the liquid phase mass transfer coefficient K-L of this liquid jet were measured; it was found that these were considerably larger than those of packed column, gas bubble column and agitated vessel. Thus it became clear that this liquid jet had a very high performance.
    Then, using Kolmogoroff's theory concerning locally isotropic turbulence, the mean diameter of bubble d0 and the volumetric flow rate QG of sucked gas in the bubble generator which are important factors of a were expressed theoretically as a function of the energy loss εb per unit volume of liquid in the bubble generator.
    Inducing a bubble coalescence model based on a concept of reaction kinetics, bubble coalescence in the liquid jet was analyzed and the relation between a mean volume-surface diameter dBM of bubble in the liquid jet and εb was discussed. These theoretical results were in good agreement with experimental results.
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  • Sirou Kishihara, Satoshi Fujii, Masahiko Komoto
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 445-449
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The ultrafiltration mechanism of the imidazoles from a caramel color through PM-10 and DDS-870 membrane was analyzed.
    It was found that some imidazoles were bound irreversibly to impermeable matter in the caramel and thus these imidazoles could not be removed by ultrafiltration.
    The following equations estimating the retained imidazoles concentration after various operations of ultra-filtration were obtained :
    C= (C0-KM/V0) (V0/V) Ri + KM/V (for single batch operation)
    Cn= (C0-KM/V0) (V/V0) n(1-Ri) + KM/V0 (for repeated batch operation)
    C= (C0-KM/V0) exp {- (1-Ri) Vp/V0} +KM/V0 (for fixed-volume operation)
    where C [mg/ml] is the concentration of imidazoles in sample, C0 [mg/ml] is the initial concentration of imidazoles in sample, Cn [mg/ml] is concentration of imidazoles in the sample after n operations of filtration (concentration factor V0/ V) and dilution (V0/V-fold), V [ml] is the volume of sample, V0 [ml] is the initial volume of sample, Vp [ml] is the volume of permeate, n [-] is times of batch operation, Ri [-] is the ideal rejection of imidazoles and KM [mg] is the amount of impermeable imidazoles.
    The amount of impermeable imidazoles through the membrane of Ri=0 could be obtained from KM=Ra· Cn · V0, where Ra [-] is the apparent rejection of imidazoles.
    It is expected that the equations obtained above are applicable to ultrafiltration of a solution in which a microsolute binds irreversibly to a high molecular weight solute.
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  • Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toyoaki Ishibachi
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 450-455
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Methods were presented for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficients of fluted tubes within the framework of the Gregorig model. Local film thicknesses were obtained for various cosine curve types of flute profile with pitch and height as geometrical parameters. The average Nusselt number is shown to be a function of pitch to height ratio alone. Inadequacies inherent in the original formulation have been pointed out.
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  • Manabu Takatsu
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 456-460
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The equations to obtain the temperatures and the thermal stress profiles in an infinite plate were derived under various boundary conditions which were combined with the following cooling conditions : a) constant film heat transfer coefficient, b) constant heat flux, c) constant temperature. The boundary conditions used in this paper were classified as follows : i) Both surfaces relate to a). ii) Both surfaces relate to b). iii) One of the surface relates to c) and the other b). iv) One of the surface relates to c) and the other a). v) one of the surface relates to c) and the other b).
    Furthermore, correlative equations of the nondimensional maximum thermal stress with respect to Biot's number and the nondimensional heat flux have been proposed for the boundary conditions mentioned above. These equations are applicable to predicting the thermal fracture of the materials.
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  • Manabu Takatsu
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 461-465
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Theoretical equations related to the thermal stress caused in an infinite plate or an infinite hollow cylinder being heated or cooled from both their surfaces were derived under different thermal conditions, namely, when the ambient temperature is increased linearly with the elapsed time and when the heat fluxes on both their surfaces are kept constant.
    It has been found from the numerical results calculated on the basis of the theoretical equations mentioned above that the thermal stress in the plate or the cylinder increases rapidly and reaches a constant value (i.e., maximum thermal stress) in a short period of time, and that the equation determining maximum thermal stress can be expressed only by a simple particular solution being involved in the theoretical equations.
    Equations proposed in this paper may be useful as fundamental information for the design of a tunnel kiln as well as for the determination of the safe heating of products.
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  • Takuya Honda, Atsushi Kanzawa
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 466-470
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The electron temperature, ion density (i.e. saturation ion current) and dynamic pressure decays of the thermal equilibrium argon plasma jet (104 K) ejected into argon gas flow (3.8 torr) were measured at the centerline of the jet. Downstream of the jet, the electron temperature, saturation ion current and dynamic pressure characteristically decrease.
    Furthermore, numerical analysis for the flow was carried out using the properties calculated by the corrected simple kinetic theory proposed by us, and these results were compared with the experimental values. These comparisons indicate that the decays of saturation ion current, etc. were found to be due to a three body recombination reaction, and the recombination rate constant was about 0.2 time the value which has been suggested by Hinnov et al. Furthermore, when a three body recombination reaction occurs, the electron temperature is higher than that of the heavy particles, because the recombination energy is given to the electron. Therefore the electron temperature determination was carried out by numerical analysis and was compared with the observed values; and it was found that these values are fairly consistent.
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  • Yoshiro Kitamura, Tsutomu Iwamoto, Teruo Takahashi
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 471-475
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The breakup length of ligaments and the diameter of drops formed from ligaments were measured by feeding of aqueous glycerol solution and liquid paraffin on disks rotating at 10002500 rpm. The breakup length increases with the flow rate and with the rotating velocity. The diameter of drops formed from ligaments increases with the flow rate and decreases with rotating velocity.
    The stability theory of liquid jets is applied to predict the breakup length of ligaments and the drop diameter by modeling of ligaments as liquid jets ejected from imaginary rotating nozzles. Theoretical predictions show good agreements with both experimental data of breakup length and drop diameter. For practical use, furthermore, the diameter of drops formed from ligaments is correlated with dimensionless groups.
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  • Masao Kito, Tadashi Monma, Yuji Kayama, Takeshi Sagai, Sachio Sugiyama
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 476-479
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The pressure drop, ΔP and the expanded bed height, H in mobile beds have been related to states of fluidized packings. The bed is operated best under the conditions such that the pressure drop across the bed is constant and independent of gas velocities.
    Correlations of ΔP and H with operating conditions are presented.
    1. The pressure drop, ΔP is calculated by the following equation.
    ΔPPLHPSLHS
    where ρP, ρL, are densities of packing and liquid, and Hs is the static bed height.
    2. The expanded bed height, H could be calculated by the following equation.
    H/HS= (1+εSLSP) / (1-εG)
    where εSL, εSP are the holdup of liquid based on the static bed height and the void fraction in the dry packed bed, respectively, and εG is the gas holdup based on the expanded bed height.
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  • Teruo Takahashi, Toshiro Miyahara, Hidetaka Izawa
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 480-484
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The behavior of single air bubbles rising through quiescent liquids, such as the shape, rising velocity and wake volume, is studied experimentally. The experiments which used seventeen kinds of aqueous glycerine solutions and glycerine-ethanol mixtures, are carried out in the Reynolds number range based on the equivalent spherical diameter 0.2-1000 and at the equivalent spherical diameter 0.2-1.8 cm. The wake volume is obtained from photographs using poster color.
    It is found that the bubble shape agrees with the equation of Tadaki et al., and the drag coefficient based on the major axis is correlated only with the Reynolds number based on the major axis. The effect of physical properties of liquids is not noticed. The volume ratio of the wake to the bubble is given as the function of the Reynolds number based on the equivalent spherical diameter and the Morton number, and the empirical equations are given.
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  • Kazumori Funatsu, Yosuke Ogata, Haruo Hayashida, Hisashi Shinohara
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 485-489
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A theory of three-dimensional flow birefringence by which material functions of viscoelastic fluids can be obtained was developed from the theory of two-dimensional flow birefringence. The material functions could be related to measurement of phase difference, incidence angle of light and shear stress for simple shear flow through a parallel plate nozzle. The first and the second normal stress differences were obtained for high density polyethylene (M.I. =0.3, Mv=7.0 × 104) at 200°C and 220°C. The first normal stress difference was concluded to be reasonable in comparison with data previously measured by several other methods, but the second normal stress difference could not be confirmed definitely plausible from accuracy of measurement though as reported in several papers, it became negative.
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  • Kazumori Funatsu, Masahiro Nishi, Hisashi Shinohara
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 490-494
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flow birefringence was applied to observation of the entrance flow and emerging flow of polymer melts through parallel plate nozzles. Isochromatic and isoclinic patterns were measured with conventional apparatus for photoelasticity. The flow field near the exit of the nozzle was divided into three parts : equilibrium flow region, rapid swelling region and slow swelling region. The stress distribution over the cross-section of the exit was different from that of the fully developed flow. The flow inside the exit began to change near a point one third of the thickness of the nozzle inside the exit. The relaxation was mostly completed near the point four times thickness of the nozzle outside the exit. The existence of exit pressure was shown. The stress, which might be strongly related to occurrence of melt fracture, was concentrated at the edge of the nozzle entrance.
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  • Isao Endo, Akira Kumagaya, Ichiro Inoue
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 495-500
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In a previous paper, authors have presented an analytical method which enable them to investigate the model change of metabolic activities of yeast cells in a batch culture. Applying this method to the same organisms in the continuous steady state, the authors have obtained the relationship between the metabolic activities of the cells and the values of operating factors such as dilution rate and glucose concentration in the feed medium. It was observed that the yeast grew almost aerobically in steady states where dilution rate, D<0.23 h-1 and the glucose concentration of the feed medium G0<7.5 g/l. Under conditions where D ≥ 0.23 and G0 ≥ 7.5, however anaerobic activities in yeast cells proceeded rather than aerobic activities.
    Nucleic acid content, rates of alcohol formation and activities of aldolase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were analysed so as to clarify the aforementioned changes of metabolic activities. From the results of theoretical analysis by the proposed model to the changes of metabolic activities suggested to be applicable to judge the metabolic activities observed the growing yeast organism.
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  • Toshimasa Hirama, Midori Yumiyama, Shohei Takeda, Hiroshi Nishino, Aki ...
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 501-506
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The characteristics of the horizontal fluidized carbonizer for metallurgical formed coke production were investigated experimentally. In this carbonizer, briquets were suspended in fluidizing sand and allowed to continuously flow through the bed.
    The mean residence time and residence time distribution of briquets were measured by the impulse response method during flow characteristics test at room temperature. The lateral temperature distribution of the bed was measured in the carbonizing test at high temperature under varied conditions. The Peclet number of briquets and the lateral effective thermal diffusivity (αrm) of the bed were calculated from the above results.
    The values of Peclet number were in a range of 350. The presence of suspended briquets led to a greater extension of the lateral temperature distribution of the bed and αrm was below 1/2 of that of the conventional fluidized bed.
    It was found that the residence time distribution of the briquets could be more narrow, and the lateral temperature difference could be readily induced by selecting appropriate operational conditions in the carbonizer of this type.
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  • Kunihiko Takeda, Hirotsugu Hattori
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 507-511
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By modifying the gas outlet position from the top to the side wall of the reactor vessel, all spouting gas has become to percolate through the annulus of the spouted bed. Based on the observed gas flow pattern in the annulus, the gas conversion of a first order catalytic reaction was calculated. The calculated conversion for the modified spouted bed proved to be much higher than that for the commonly used bed of a top-outlet type. Particularly a double-walled type, in combination with side-outlet modification, shows remarkable approach of conversion to that of a fixed bed which has the same gas-solid contact time.
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  • Hiroaki Masuda, Takahiro Komatsu, Koichi Iinoya
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 512-516
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Gas-solids suspensions flowing in pipes coated with insulators generate a higher electric current than in a steel pipe. The sign of the current follows a kind of tribo-electric series. The effects of the powder flow rate, mean air velocity and the mean particle size on the generated current are similar to those in a steel pipe. With increase in the length of the test pipe, the current shows a tendency to be saturated. The effects of a bend and a pipe-inlet are also studied.
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  • Koichi Iinoya, Kazutaka Makino, Kunio Ueshima, Mao Hong Lin, Yasushige ...
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 517-521
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A bag filter generally is continuously operated over a period of one or two years after the installation of a new filter, so that the variations with time of pressure drop performance must be understood in order to design and operate a bag filter under economically optimal condition.
    However, it is extremely difficult in a laboratory not only to measure pressure drop over such a long period of time, but also to simulate the same operating conditions as those of an industrial bag filter. Therefore, pressure drop parameters have to be estimated from measured data of pressure drop in an industrial multi-compartment bag filter. However, a method for measuring pressure drop parameters have not yet been established.
    In this paper, a new measuring method is established, which can quantitatively estimate pressure drop parameters necessary for design and operation of a bag filter from field data. Examples of application of the method to bag filters with mechanical shaking or reverse air cleaning are given.
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  • Hidezumi Sugie, Kazuyoshi Ono, Shoichi Morikawa, Ikuho Yamada
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 522-526
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
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    A method of predicting Joule-Thomson coefficients, isothermal throttling coefficients and isobaric heat capacities of nonpolar gases in Tr>1 region is proposed utilizing the Sugie-Lu equation of state.
    For pure gases only Tc, Pc and ω are required for the prediction, but for mixtures, in addition to those constants, the binary interaction coefficient kij introduced by Chuech and Prausnitz is required. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by the successful prediction for two pure gases and seven binary mixtures.
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  • Ryuichi Aoki, Hiroshi Tsunakawa, Tetsuo Nishizawa, Akio Nishiwaki, Yas ...
    1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 527-540
    Published: September 10, 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
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  • 1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 540a
    Published: 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
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  • 1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 540b
    Published: 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
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  • 1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 540c
    Published: 1976
    Released: October 21, 2009
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  • 1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 540d
    Published: 1976
    Released: November 22, 2010
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  • 1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 540e
    Published: 1976
    Released: November 22, 2010
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  • 1976 Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages 540f
    Published: 1976
    Released: November 22, 2010
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