KAGAKU KOGAKU RONBUNSHU
Online ISSN : 1349-9203
Print ISSN : 0386-216X
ISSN-L : 0386-216X
Volume 3 , Issue 6
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Shigeaki Kasaoka, Yusaku Sakata, Norio Nanba, Ryuzo Hiraoka, Hiroshi S ...
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 537-542
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Reaction kinetics for catalytic oxidation of Fe2+ (0.0010.01 g-ion/l) in acid solutions (0.005-1.0 g-mol/l) with activated carbon [average diameter (dp) : 0.060.1 mm] (Fe2+H+ +1/4O2→Fe3++1/2H2O) was studied by using a semi-batch stirred tank reactor under atmospheric pressure and at 30°C.
    The following rate equations were obtained. For both FeCl2-HCl and FeSO4-H2SO4 solution :
    γα=-d [Fe2+] /dθ=k [Fe2+] [H+] 0.2 [AC] dp-1PO2
    For FeSO4-H3SO4 solution :
    γα=-d [Fe2+] /dθ=k' [Fe2+] 00.85 [Fe2+] 0.5 [H+] 0 [AC] dp-1PO2
    For FeSO4-H2SO4 H3PO4 solution :
    γα=-d [Fe2+] /dθ=k' [Fe2+] 00.75 [Fe2+] 0.5 [H2SO4] -0.2 [H3PO4] 0.3 [AC] dp-1PO2
    where [AC] is relative concentration of activated carbon [g/g (Fe)].
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  • Isao Endo, Kazuhisa Ohtaguchi, Teruyuki Nagamune, Ichiro Inoue
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 543-550
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the structure of the batch culture systems of a yeast organism.
    Brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used as a test organism and was cultivated aerobically using glucose as the sole operating variable. The initial concentration of glucose was changed in 17 variations from 2.0 to 230.0 (mg/ml).
    In addition to the metabolic process, transport in a cellular system was considered to relate the glucose concentration in the culture medium to metabolic activities of the organism. The characteristic properties of both the transport process and metabolic one were studied from the relationships between the dimensionless glucose concentration and the dimensionless output variables of the two above mentioned processes. The batch culture systems was represented in a functional block diagram.
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  • Kazuhisa Ohtaguchi, Isao Endo, Ichiro Inoue
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 551-557
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Reciprocal effects of the yeast metabolic products or those of the bacteria on the transport activities for glucose and oxygen of each microorganism were confirmed by experiments.
    In order to elucidate the metabolic product effects, the cell expelled culture broth which was obtained at several growth phases of the batch cultivation of brewer's yeast (S. cerevisiae) and the bacteria (Ps. fluorescens) was added in definite ratios, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 at different growth phases of the other microorganisms.
    It was found that the reciprocal effects of the metabolic products on the microbial transport processes were represented by using the coefficients ν, (Qo2·Y) γ, ν and (Qo2.B) γ, and the equivalent concentrations PY* and PB*. The results were pictured in a block diagram.
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  • Yasuo Hatate, Reiko Kubo, Atsushi Ikari, Fumiyuki Nakashio, Shigeru Ho ...
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 558-562
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When two kinds of monomer, only one of which contains initiator, are supplied to a stirred tank reactor through separate inlets, even slight micro-segregation can be detected from the relation between the composition of copolymer and that of monomer in the effluent. The mechanism of the micro-segregation can also be deduced.
    To examine the occurrence of micro-segregation in a continuous polymerization reactor, experiments of copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile were carried out under various conditions. The reaction temperature was set at 70 or 80°C. At each temperature, the rotational speed, mean residence time and total monomer concentration in feed were changed, respectively, in the range of 80500 rpm, 60350 min and 6.08.5 mol/l.
    It was found that complete micro-mixing was shown in every experimental condition, under which the test of tracer response shows complete mixing.
    Consequently, it appears that before segregated flow appears, continuous operation in polymerization becomes unstable due to the existence of dead space or the nonuniformity of temperature caused by high viscosity.
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  • Yukimichi Okamoto, Masabumi Nishikawa, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Kenji Hashi ...
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 563-568
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Turbulent fluctuating velocities and energy spectra were measured in non-baffled mixing vessels. Spectrum functions obtained under various conditions (location, agitator speed, vessel scale, baffled or non-baffled, flow in a pipe or vessels, water or air) were reduced to one dimensionless function, when normalized by root-mean-square velocity, u1' and micro scale, λƒ of turbulence.
    Distributions of u1' and λƒ in the vessels were measured, which made it possible to calculate energy spectra at respective locations in the vessels. It was also possible to predict changes of energy spectra on scale-up, as effects of agitator speed and vessel scale on u1' and λƒ were discussed experimentally.
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  • Teruo Takahashi, Yasuharu Akagi, Tamiya Kishimoto
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 569-574
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The gas and liquid velocities of flooding and incipient liquid stagnation, liquid holdup (HL) and pressure drop through turbogrid trays (ΔPT) were measured by using a column of 0.15 m dia.. The flooding velocities are influenced mainly by the ratio of total hole area to sectional area of the column (Ah/Ac) and the gas and liquid velocities of incipient liquid stagnation are influenced mainly by the hole diameter (de). The stable operational ranges become wider with decrease of Ah/Ac and de. The measured HL and ΔPT become smaller than those of a sieve tray without downcomer. It was found that those hydraulic performances could be correlated analogously to the sieve tray.
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  • Yasuhiko Uehara
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 575-579
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In developing ferrite memory cores for electronic computers, the manufacturing process was studied with emphasis placed on milling, to investigate the largely unknown effect of unit operations of chemical engineering on the characteristics of electronic materials. It was found that powder compression characteristics, sintering characteristics, mechanical strength of core, and memory properties can be improved effectively through extended milling by a vibration ball mill. As a result, two models of miniature high-speed memory cores were perfected and put into mass production. One has an outside diameter of 0.39 mm and a switching time of 180 n sec, the other 0.35 mm and 140 n sec, respectively. During a long milling process, ferrite powder was observed to undergo a mechano-chemical change. The effect of this change on other unit operations such as sintering was investigated.
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  • Hitoshi Emi, Shigehisa Endo, Chikao Kanaoka, Seiichi Kawai
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 580-585
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Forces due to liquid bridge between spherical particles of equal size ranging from 80 to 700 μm were measured by a centrifugal method which has been used to measure adhesive forces between particles and plate. In the experiment, one spherical particle was adhered with nonvolatile liquid, DOP, to another particle which was fixed on a razor blade by glue. It simplifies the microscopic observation of the geometric shape of bridge. Then, the blade was inserted into the closed cell, which was set in a centrifugal disk. Experimental forces obtained from the speed of revolution at which the particle detached, were compared with Rumpf's liquid bridge theory for various half center angle of bridge and dimensionless separation distances between two equal spheres. It was concluded that this theory may also be applicable to fine particles which generally compose the practical wetted powder bed.
    Adhesive forces in moist air were also measured in the same way. As a result, adhesion in high humidity seemed to be caused by liquid bridge.
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  • Sumitoshi Ogata, Hisashi Shinohara
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 586-592
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The charge of drops from a charged metal capillary was measured for a number of liquids with a conductivity in the range of 10-14 to 10-4 mho/ cm. The specific charge of polar liquids was independent of the conductivity and the mass flow rate showing a good correlation with the experimental equation of q/m= ε0V/ργ2, but a concept of the electrical Reynolds number had to be introduced for the low conductive kerosene to systematize its specific charge.
    By measurements of specific charge of dripping drops, as well as observations of spraying patterns and corona discharge, the regions of electrical properties of liquids in which they could completely be atomized was defined.
    For conductivity : 10-10 to 10-5 mho/ cm.
    For electrical relaxation time : 10-6 to 10-3 sec.
    Moreover, for liquids with small relaxation time, an apparent reduction of surface tension caused by charging was estimated and compared with previous work.
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  • Shoji Tanno, Shigemori Ohtani
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 593-599
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Adhesion and coalescence behaviors of droplets, which were sprayed on a glass plate, were observed by taking photographs in order to study the spray coating. The pattern of the surface at the initial period of film formation was also observed. For three solutions : glycerin-ethanol, acrylic resin-thinner and glycerin-distilled water, the reticular patterns of surface were investigated when the solutions were repeatedly sprayed, and the mechanism of film formation was discussed.
    It was found that the reticular pattern formed in the initial period did not disappear, so that the surface roughness remained and the so-called “Orange peel” could be observed when drying was carried out. The reason for this roughness is different from that for the Bénard cell which occurs in the natural convective flow of horizontal liquid layer.
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  • Kanya Tanaka, Naotaka Okamoto
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 600-605
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mass transfer of ammonia into quiescent water has been investigated optically, and further examined quantitatively by means of manometric method. In the case of absorption through a downward-facing surface, this system was unstable and natural convection was observed in the water phase. Under these circumstances, it was demonstrated clearly that the absorption rates are large. On the other hand, in the case of absorption through an upward-facing surface, no convection currents were observed optically.
    Even under such conditions, it was recognized experimentally that diffusion-induced bulk flow considerably affects the rates of absorption. A method of analyzing Schlieren data which eliminates the effect of bulk flow has been developed. Diffusion coefficients calculated by this method are shown. The extension of classical Arnold theory to this system is also proposed for comparison with the measured rates of absorption.
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  • Masahito Sato, Fumikazu Ikazaki, Tsutomu Sugeta, Shigeki Toyama, Kazuy ...
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 606-611
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dynamics of a multi-stage flash evaporator (MSF) under wide load changes become a problem, such as at a dual purpose plant of a MSF and a power. Experiment were conducted to analyse the dynamics of a MSF in case of widely changing load using the 3, 000 m3/d test MSF plant. Responses to step input changes are obtained to get the frequency transfer-functions and Bode diagrams through Fourier's transformation. Consequently, the following basic information was obtained about a control and a partial load operation of a MSF plant. This process shows different dynamics corresponding to types of input changes, namely step up and step down. Transfer-function of the MSF is difficult to describe by a simple time lag system. It is sufficient that dynamics of the MSF under 1.0-1.5 rad/min frequency is only considered in order to control this process. Also the limit values of stable operations is given in the figure through stationary partial load operations.
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  • Katsuhiko Muroyama, Kenji Hashimoto, Takao Tomita
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 612-616
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The apparent wall heat transfer coefficients hω were measured in gas-liquid cocurrent packed beds. The following correlations for hω were obtained : In the trickling flow region, hωdp/kL=0.012 (CpLμL/kL) 1/3 (dpGLL) 1.7 (4<ReL·μL0<20) (A)
    and in the pulsing and bubbling flow regions,
    hωdp/kL=0.092 (CpLμL/kL) 1/3 (dpGL/εαLμL) 0.8 (20≤ReL·μL0<200) (B)
    Eq. (B) was obtained by modifying the correlation of Yagi and Wakao for a single phase flow in packed beds.
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  • Masanori Fujitsu, Toru Takeuchi, Sachio Sugiyama, Masanobu Hasatani
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 617-621
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The transient thermal stress in the insulating-refractory materials made by stratifying two kinds of materials which have different fire-resisting properties and thermal resistances was theoretically analyzed by the finite element method on the basis of plane strain model. The measured values for the transient temperature profile in sample and the strain and the tensile stress at the outer surface of sample were found to be in fairly good agreement with predicted values by the proposed analytical method.
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  • Tadashi Shirotsuka, Masao Sudoh, Tohru Sakai, Nobuichi Ohi, Katsuhiko ...
    1977 Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 622-639
    Published: November 10, 1977
    Released: October 21, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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