KAGAKU KOGAKU RONBUNSHU
Online ISSN : 1349-9203
Print ISSN : 0386-216X
ISSN-L : 0386-216X
Volume 40 , Issue 3
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
Editorial Note
Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
  • Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 147
    Published: 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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  • Yuji Naka
    Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 149-155
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    The process industry has caused many serious accidents since 2000. The causes are not only on the spot but are related to the management problems of engineering. For example, the correspondence which modifies the set-point of a control system is a part of the entire engineering activity. It is a very tiny change but it belongs to Management of Change because it may cause a serious accident. The conventional solution is derived from a local viewpoint but is not taken from a global viewpoint. This basic concept is summarized by ‘Introduction to Information Integration’ (Naka et al., 2006).
    This paper discusses the necessity of an engineering activity model as well as a technical information infrastructure that supports decision-making from multi-dimensional viewpoints. The model to is applied here to planning of a biomass network system, which is a kind of complicated socio-technical system.
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  • Yuji Tamaki, Kazuhiro Takeda
    Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 156-161
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    The state of plant operation in terms of safety, product quality and productivity can be found by grasping semi-quantitatively the excess or deficiency in performance of equipment provided by maintenance teams relative to the performance required by production teams. In grasping excess or deficiency, it is necessary to develop a means by which production and maintenance teams can reach a mutual understanding of the reliability that each expects of equipment. The reliability of equipment cannot be evaluated solely by scientifically proven facts, but requires judgment based on people’s overall understanding, which includes assumptions based on experience and conjecture. To understand the level of reliability in such a comparable form, it will be possible by this means to grasp systematically and semi-quantitatively the effects of both teams on equipment operation as a level of latent risk, and also to evaluate objectively the overall reliability of equipment during operation by establishing appropriate indices.
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  • Taiji Sugimoto
    Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 162-173
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    Securing process safety involves both technical and non-technical measures. While the latter lie outside the field of expertise of most engineers, neglect of non-technical measures can invalidate technical efforts. In matters of engineering ethics, regulation and compliance, and safety culture issues, considerable differences are observed between international trends and the Japanese nuclear world before the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident. In the past, Japan has changed itself by accepting Western culture, first in the Meiji era and secondly after World War II. Now, we are facing a third chance to change. An effective way to learn and understand non-technical safety measures should be a consistent one, not a piecemeal one according topic. This paper proposes a new method of research and education in the law related to science and technology, and an improvement of ethical education for students and practicing engineers accompanied by a change of ethical vision.
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  • Emi Kikuchi-Uehara, Yasunori Kikuchi, Masahiko Hirao
    Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 174-186
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    As industry pursues the appropriate management of chemical substances, voluntary efforts to manage environmental and human health risks are required in middle-stream industries that manufacture components in the product supply chain. In this study, an activity model was developed as a framework of process improvement for risk reduction in order to support risk management in processes operated in middle-stream industries. Problems in the current risk management activities were analyzed in a case study of cleaning processes of metal components, and framework requirements were clarified on the basis of the problem analysis. Three activities, namely, process design based on quantitative evaluation, mechanism development for process evaluation, and constraint management related to decision making in process design, are needed for risk management in middle-stream industries; and each activity requires different authority and abilities. A practical framework defining the actors of each activity was developed with the activity modeling method IDEF0. Sub-models were created for project administrators, engineers, and researchers; and information flow among sub-models was depicted in order to define collaboration among these actors. The activity model developed can be applied to risk management as a guideline for middle-stream industries that lack the necessary knowledge or know-how for risk management.
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  • Teiji Kitajima, Yukiyasu Shimada, Tetsuo Fuchino, Kiyotaka Bito
    Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 187-193
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    Activities for process safety management are considered troublesome and are often not actively pursued in production workplaces. For effective production management, the inseparably associated viewpoints of safety, quality, delivery, and cost (SQDC) should be integrated. This paper proposes an integrated approach for production management based on an SQDC process-sheet, which adds to the conventional quality control (QC) process chart points of deliberate safety management through the plant lifecycle engineering. Promotion of integrated production management based on the SQDC process-sheet allows the “visualization (mieruka)” of management activities in the production workplace.
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  • Hirofumi Kawai, Hiroya Seki, Teiji Kitajima, Tetsuo Fuchino, Yuji Naka
    Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 194-200
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    In pharmaceutical industries, lifecycle management of process improvement by coordinating product design, recipe design, facility development, and production activities is necessary to develop robust and consistent production processes that satisfy requirements for product quality. The business process of pharmaceutical process lifecycle engineering is described in an activity model that defines the stages of plan–do–check–act. On the basis of this model, procedures and a change-management system in lifecycle engineering were developed. The procedures and the system can be continuously improved by the activity model-based systems approach to achieve practicable process lifecycle engineering in pharmaceutical production.
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  • Hirokazu Sugiyama, Rainer Schmidt
    Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 201-210
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    To further raise quality and cost-effectiveness in the pharmaceutical industry, we have developed and operationalized a business process model of continuous improvement for production processes. All required activities, information and tools for process improvement were defined using the activity-modeling method termed Integrated Definition type 0 (IDEF0). Elements for considering impacts of process changes on product quality and patient safety, which are vital in the pharmaceutical industry, were also incorporated into the model. In addition, the so-called RACI method was applied to classify the roles and responsibilities of all involved stakeholders, including management, staff, quality assurance and engineering, as Responsible, Accountable, Inform and Consult (RACI). This complementary combination of RACI and IDEF0 enabled the definition of the roles and responsibilities of multiple stakeholders that participate in an activity. The business process model was developed based on the actual activities of continuous improvement in a Parenterals production facility of a Swiss pharmaceutical company, Roche. As a case study, a project on reducing product losses in the Parenterals production process is presented along with the model, in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.
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  • Yasunori Kikuchi
    Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 211-223
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    A supporting information-infrastructure for implementing sustainability assessment into process design is strongly needed. This study proposes activity and data models for process assessment that take sustainability into account. Firstly, existing assessment methods and indicators were extracted and systematically clustered by a bibliometric analysis based on citation network. Based on the specified clusters on existing cases of sustainability assessment, a commonly applicable activity model was developed by using the integrated definition method type 0 (IDEF0). The structure of required data for applied assessment methods was visualized by using unified modeling language (UML). By tracing existing projects on process assessment onto the proposed models, it was confirmed that some assessment methods such as life cycle assessment, risk assessment, and material flow analysis are easily executable based on the proposed models.
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  • Kazuhiro Takeda, Takashi Hamaguchi, Naoki Kimura, Masaru Noda
    Type: Special Issue [In search of a Common Conceptual Framework for Safety, Quality and Sustainability Management]
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 224-229
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    The alarm management lifecycle model of ISA (International Society of Automation) establishes recommended processes for a plant alarm system. To realize the lifecycle, a BPM (business process model) for appropriate management of change in the plant alarm system is required. The following two-step approach will be effective to manage change in the plant alarm system. The first step is to construct a BPM in accordance with the lifecycle based on the BPM of plant lifecycle engineering. The second step is to develop a workflow for management of change in the plant alarm system. The BPM and the business flow should not only list activities of the BPM but also specify the information to be shared and exchanged between activities, the tools and methods to be used, and the requirements of additional tools and methods for design or performance monitoring of the plant alarm system. This paper introduces the proposed tools and methods for design and performance monitoring of a plant alarm system.
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Transport Phenomena and Fluid Engineering
  • Hiromi Fuse, Toru Ishigami, Yasushi Mino, Yusuke Kagawa, Shinichi Asao ...
    Type: Transport Phenomena and Fluid Engineering
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 230-233
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    This study presents a numerical method to coordinate membrane structure calculated by the phase-field method with direct numerical simulation of particulate flow. The immersed boundary method was used for coordination of the fluid computation; and level set method was used for coordination of the particle computation, which requires the distance between the membrane surface and the particles and the direction of fluid flow. The coordinated simulation was then applied to the permeation of a single particle through two types of membrane structures. First, the phase field method was used to prepare two types of membranes with differing phase separation times, then direct numerical simulation was performed for the permeation of a single particle through these membranes. Markedly different particle velocities and permeation times were found between two types of membrane structures.
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Particle Engineering
  • Seiji Okazaki, Kenta Hamai, Akio Sakamoto, Takashi Ogi, Kikuo Okuyama
    Type: Particle Engineering
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 234-239
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    Carbon materials are used in various fields, such as the anode material for lithium ion batteries and specialty carbon for the crucibles of silicon wafer production, because of their superior strength and conductivity. They are the only materials that can be used in non-oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures above 2,000°C, and carbon materials with homolytic properties are in demand in many fields. In this study, sphericalization of carbon materials was examined by using a dry granulation of oil-based raw cokes in three types of powder-processing apparatus. SEM and TEM observations revealed that the spherical form was maintained after graphitization at high temperature, and spherical graphitized carbon powder with homolytic crystals was produced.
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Separation Engineering
  • Takehiro Yamaki, Tatsuro Ikoshi, Masahiro Shishido, Keigo Matsuda, Hid ...
    Type: Separation Engineering
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 240-243
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    Process dynamics of reactive distillation with multiple steady states (MSS) was investigated to provide a novel operation procedure. The existence of MSS was first clarified using a simulation model with bifurcation analysis. Dynamic simulations under MSS conditions were next performed and showed that the MSS had both stable and unstable solutions. The dynamic simulation results indicated the potential for operation using multiple steady-state conditions.
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  • Takehiro Yamaki, Masahiro Shishido, Keigo Matsuda, Hideyuki Matsumoto
    Type: Separation Engineering
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 244-249
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    The effects of operating conditions such as reflux ratio and reboiler duty on the product composition and reaction performance were discussed based on a simulation model of reactive distillation with multiple steady states (MSS). The region of MSS, determined by bifurcation analysis, was found to shift toward higher reboiler duty along with increase of reflux ratio. Separation and reaction performance under the MSS condition was higher than that in the absence of an MSS region.
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  • Koji Yoshii, Takuya Kotani, Norihiro Murayama, Junji Shibata
    Type: Separation Engineering
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 250-254
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    Contamination of groundwater by arsenic in the form of arsenite As(III) and arsenate As(V) has become an environmental problem globally. In this study, the competitive adsorption of As(III) and As(V) on γ-Al2O3 was examined, and As(V) was found to be preferentially adsorbed from an aqueous solution of As(III) and As(V). To improve the removal of As(III) from aqueous solution, MnO2 was mixed with the adsorbent as an oxidizing agent to convert inorganic As(III) to As(V), and the effects of pH and the amount of added MnO2 on the removal of As(III) were examined. The addition of MnO2 increased the removal of As(III) from 20 to 90% at pH 3. The dissolution of MnO2 through oxidation of As(III) decreased with increasing pH. Above pH 6, As(III) was oxidized and adsorbed without Mn2+ remaining in solution, probably due to the adsorption of Mn2+ on the surface of MnO2. The oxidation rate was slow compared with the adsorption rate of As(III) and As(V) on γ-Al2O3.
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Energy
  • Akinori Iguchi, Hideo Hirabayashi, Kazushi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishimura
    Type: Energy
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 255-260
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    Since the introduction of feed-in tariff programs, the construction of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plants is rapidly increasing in Japan. Although the minimum required lifetime of PV systems is 20 years, some PV panels show a reduced capacity to generate electric power over the long term, and at present the reduction in performance can be evaluated only by measuring their generating capacity. One possible cause of this reduction is considered to be degradation of the polymer material used for the PV backsheet. In this study, the commercial PET film most commonly used for the PV backsheet was evaluated. The rate of degradation of PET film was investigated by measuring its mechanical properties and partial discharge characteristics. It was found that the rate of degradation of PET film could be effectively evaluated from the partial discharge characteristics.
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Environment
  • Makoto Sano, Kiyoharu Nakagawa, Hirokazu Oda, Hajime Obata, Shinji Kit ...
    Type: Environment
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 261-265
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    In order to develop Cs removal techniques from low level radioactive liquid wastes of decontamination processes, we propose an effective Cs removal method to handle two operations simultaneously at one step, which includes an adsorption of Cs ion from the waste liquors and a flocculation of the adsorbent particles loaded Cs ion. Mixtures of natural zeolite or Prussian blues as cation exchangers, and aluminum sulphate type reagents as flocculants were effective materials. Fundamental study was carried out to remove Cs ions from aqueous solutions using only cation-exchangers, only mineral flocculants, and the mixtures of them.
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  • Tomoya Ueki, Tsugiko Takase, Michio Sato
    Type: Environment
    2014 Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 266-271
    Published: May 20, 2014
    Released: May 20, 2014
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    Cerium oxide is widely used in fine polishing processes, such as the production of optical lenses, prisms, LCD panels and HDD glass substrates. More than 90% of rare earth elements used in Japan, including cerium, have been imported from China, and their prices have risen sharply. Therefore, reuse and/or recycling are urgently required. Our previous study of technologies for recovery of cerium-oxide abrasive particulates from used slurry revealed that freezing and thawing caused particulates to agglomerate and form aggregates that can be easily separated by sedimentation. In this study, we examined the mechanism of secondary particle formation and found that secondary particle formation might be aided by glass components in used slurry. We next examined the behavior of sodium silicate and colloidal silica as models of the glass components in slurry and found that they were agglutinated by freezing and thawing. It was observed that glass components adhered to the abrasive particle surfaces in used slurry. The glass components on the abrasive particle surfaces probably aid the adhesion of abrasive particles during freezing and thawing.
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