To determine the physical symptoms and ki, ketsu and sui (qi, blood and fluid) factors associated with the presence of hie-sho (chill syndrome). Total 118 healthy university students (66 males and 52 females, median age 22 years, range 21-29) were enrolled. A cross-sectional study about the presence of chill syndrome in participants was performed. Terasawa's ki, ketsu and sui diagnostic score was used to identify the presence of physical symptoms. Number rating scale (NRS) was used to classify the chill and NRS more than 5 was defined as chill syndrome based on Furuya's report. Eighteen students (4 males and 14 females) were documented as chill syndrome. The multivariate analysis of physical symptoms identified female (OR 4.65, p = 0.0427), heavy sensation of head (OR 2.98, p = 0.0190) and chill of extremities (OR 1.94, p = 0.0480) as significantly associated factors with chill syndrome. The score of ki-kyo (qi deficiency), ketsu-kyo (blood deficiency) and suitai (fluid retention) showed higher score in students with chill syndrome compared to students without chill syndrome in univariate analysis. Being female and two indicators of qi abnormalities including heavy sensation of head and chill of extremities were associated with the presence of chill syndrome in university students.
Oketsu is a characteristic pathophysiology in Kampo and traditional East Asian medicine that includes multiple aspects of hemodynamic disorder. Anti-oketsu drugs or the Kampo formulation used for oketsu show significant clinical effects on various disorders; however, their underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. We aimed to clarify the characteristics of the pharmacological effects of anti-oketsu drugs on the microcirculation using a microscopic live imaging technique. Three Kampo formulations, namely tokakujokito, keishibukuryogan, and tokishakuyakusan were orally administrated to C57BL/6 mice at a dose of 300 mg/kg diluted in distilled water. Live imaging was performed on the subcutaneous vessels of the mice, including the arteries (diameter > 50 μm), arterioles (diameter 10-50 μm) and capillaries (diameter < 10 μm). Tokakujokito widely increased erythrocyte flow velocity and blood flow volume from arteries to capillaries within 60 min of administration. The effects of keishibukuryogan on the vasodilation of the arterioles were remarkable, and continued up to 120 min after administration. The pharmacological target of tokishakuyakusan was the capillaries, increasing their erythrocyte velocity and blood flow volume;its effect was more slowly expressed than those of the other formulations. Our results clearly demonstrate the sequential and special effects of anti-oketsu drugs on hemodynamics. These differences may provide pharmacological information on the clinical usage of traditional Kampo formulations.
We report two cases of patients with intractable upper abdominal pain and histories of injury or surgery. The patients' pains were successfully treated with tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TSG). Case 1 involved a 59-year-old woman with left upper abdominal and thoracodorsal pain lasting 5 years. Kampo drugs such as tokito or prescriptions containing saiko were ineffective. Two years after her first visit, we noticed an injury scar from childhood that passed near the left hikon (pi-gen, ExB4) and induration and tenderness of the left hikon. TSG was administered, and the pain promptly improved. Case 2 involved a 66-year-old woman. She complained of epigastric, right-upper-quadrant abdominal and back pain lasting 7 years. Two years before presentation, the pain had worsened, but the cause was unclear. Although keishibukuryogan or Kampo drugs containing saiko were ineffective, her pain improved when TSG plus bushi was administered. A wound from a cholecystectomy was observed on her right abdomen. Induration and tenderness of the right hikon were demonstrated. The combination of past history of injury or surgery of the upper abdomen or back and induration of hikon can be associated with development of indications for TSG.
A42-year-old man presented with a history of tidal fever almost every evening to night with 10-year duration. We could not find out the cause of his fever, so we thought he was classified in fever of unknown origin. The patient suffered from an anhydrosis phase during the temperature rose, but his fever broke after perspiration occurred at the end. The lack of perspiration with fever is a typical symptom of excess pattern of tai yang stage, and fever at night is suggestive of shao yang stage. Saikatsugekito was thought to be best suited as it would address both stages. The formula promoted perspiration, and the body temperature remained stable thereafter. It is not unusual to encounter complicated symptoms due to combined or overlapped pattern in clinical setting. This case represented successful outcome by identifying and analyzing the concept of gobyo and heibyo and prescribing a formula accordingly.
In some molecular targeted therapies, skin disorders including acne-like rashes or maculopapular rashes frequently appear, which are often clinically problematic. In Kampo medicine, it has been reported that the combination of jumihaidokuto and orengedokuto (hereinafter called JHT + OGT) is effective for acne. In this study, we report the experiences of JHT + OGT for the treatment of rashes caused by molecular targeted therapies. We extracted patients from June 2013 to June 2017 who took molecular targeted therapies and the treatment with JHT + OGT for skin rashes. The primary endpoint was severity of rashes before and after treatment by JHT + OGT (judged by CTCAE v4.0). In 22 patients (14 males and 8 females), the rashes after treatment with JHT + OGT significantly improved compared with those before treatment (from the median grade of 2 to 1 [p = 0.011]), with 14 cases of improvement, 6 cases of no change, and 2 cases of deterioration. It was suggested that JHT + OGT for skin rashes caused by molecular targeted therapies could be one of the treatment options.
We investigated the effectiveness of hangekobokuto in alleviating dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia attributed to latestage neurosyphilis. Our study subject, a 67-year-old man treated for his leg pain in our department, hoped this treatment would relieve his severe cough and sore throat. According to a neurological investigation and the analysis of blood and cerebrospinal fluid, his symptoms (swallowing disturbance and aspiration pneumonia in the lower lobes of both lungs) led to the diagnosis of cerebral bulbar paralysis caused by latestage neurosyphilis. The patient requested drug therapy ; thus, we prescribed 7.5 g/day of hangekobokuto, to be administered orally, based on his medical findings of qi stagnation and tan yin. Dysphagia was relieved one week after oral administration of hangekobokuto, and after three weeks, the patient's discomfort had almost disappeared. Moreover, aspiration pneumonia was also improved in his chest CT image finding. Late-stage neurosyphilis symptoms usually develop within 20 to 30 years of contracting syphilis, an infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Symptoms may include a loss of swallowing reflex and cough reflex due to the paralysis of cerebral basal ganglia. However, hangekobokuto was found to increase the concentration of substance P released in the pharyngeal head and tracheal mucosa, and thus improve swallowing function. We conclude that hangekobokuto is a useful agent for alleviating the swallowing abnormality of late-stage neurosyphilis.
We report three cases of patients with mental illness suffering from symptoms associated with menstruation, which were improved with Kampo treatment. Case1: A 39-year-old female had been in a depressive state after delivery and diagnosed with persistent mood disorder in the Neuropsychiatry Department of Fukushima Medical University (FMU). During treatment for the disorder, she developed premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and was immediately hospitalized. After she was introduced to the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department, we treated her with Kampo medicine such as tokakujokito considering the meaning of the pattern (sho), and then she recovered from PMDD. Case2: A 29-year-old female with schizophrenic disorder treated in the Neuropsychiatry Department of FMU was referred to the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department due to PMDD. We administered Kampo medicine such as kamishoyosan, nyosinsan and saikozai when yang pattern was observed, and ninjinto and daikenchuto in yin sho. Then, her condition then gradually improved. Case3: A 37-year-old female diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was hospitalized in the Neuropsychiatry Department of FMU. She was introduced to the Obstetrics/Gynecology department due to dysmenorrhea and PMS. After she was treated with keishibukuryogan and hangekobokuto, her symptoms improved. In conclusion, Kampo treatment appears to be effective for symptoms associated with menstruation in women with mental illness.
Night owl is one of the painful symptoms for cancer patients. Patients with advanced cancer, who tend to bed on bed rest, often sleep during the day and are awake at night, especially. Night owl may make worse the QOL of patients. We controlled night owl and cancer pain of a patient with advanced cancer by treatment with Kampo, Japanese herbal medicine. The case was a 53-year-old female patient with metastatic head and neck cancer. She tended to be a night owl. So, we administered maobushisaishinto and keishikaryukotsuboreito to her, because we regarded her as qi obstruction. During the night, she was able to sleep successfully. After that, administration of hainosankyuto and bukuryoingohangekobokuto reduced the use of rescue medication. Moreover, Kampo was useful for pain control.
Arthritis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb is typically treated with oral anti-inflammatory drugs, external medicines, and temporary external fixation. We report 3 cases of arthritis of carpometacarpal joint of the thumb that were successfully treated with sokeikakketsuto. In cases 1 and 2, a 50-year-old woman and 68-year-old man, respectively, were diagnosed with arthritis of the carpometacarpal joint and were successfully treated with sokeikakketsuto. In case 3, a 66-year-old man complained of pain in the second carpometacarpal joint caused by gout, and was successfully treated with eppikajutsuto and daiobotampito. However, the pain in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb due to arthritis remained, and was successfully treated with sokeikakketsuto. Eppikajutsuto and daiobotampito were effective for acute arthritis such as gout, and sokeikakketsuto was effective for osteoarthritis. Overall, patients with different diseases in the various local regions may have slightly different clinical presentations even in the same case.
The patient was a 44-year-old man with right facial paralysis as the main complaint. Upon resection of a benign parotid gland tumor (6 cm in diameter), one of the buccal branches of the right facial nerve was severed. Immediately after the surgery, facial nerve paralysis occurred in the areas innervated by the buccal and marginal mandibular branches. Therefore, on the 5th day after the surgery, acupuncture was started. The paralyzed facial site was treated weekly for 15 minutes by inserting a disposable acupuncture needle (40 mm in length and 0.16 mm in thickness) about 5 mm deep into the site. As a result, the discomfort around the right ear was alleviated and the right facial nerve paralysis was gradually improved and cured in 6 months after the onset. Acupuncture may have prevented secondary changes such as tissue scarring and atrophy after the surgery, and promoted healing. The paralysis of the areas innervated by the buccal branches may have been improved through rerooting from the other branches in the periphery region of the neurectomy site. The present case is informative in considering the indications of acupuncture.
Keishininjinto has been used for those who have both interior cold pattern of ninjinto and exterior pattern, but there were no reports on improvement of hypertension. We experienced two cases that treatment with keishininjinto was effective for hypertension. The complaint of one case was dizziness, and the other was diarrhea. Both cases had epigastric discomfort and resistance, cold of epigastrium, and upper heat and lower cold. Treatment with keishininjinto was effective not only for the complaints but also for improvement of hypertension. Hypertension can be managed by Kampo therapy with keishininjinto in accordance with traditional sho indications. We consider that there were interesting clinical cases treated with Kampo medicine based on the theory whereby sho correlates with a formulation.
This is a case report of Graves' disease. The patient was 76-year-old female. She was hospitalized for acute subdural hemorrhage immediately after onset of Graves' disease with liver injury. It was difficult to treat her with Western medicine because of the potential side effects of the drug. So we prescribed shakanzoto. Thyroid hormone levels, TRAb levels and physical symptoms were all improved. Psychological symptoms were also improved. This suggests that Graves' disease can be improved by Kampo medicine when Western medical treatment is difficult.
Cough-variant asthma is the most common cause of chronic cough. It may progress to classic asthma and therefore requires adequate treatment intervention. We experienced two cases of cough-variant asthma that was refractory to standard drug therapy but improved after additional administration of kumibinroto. In Case 1, the patient was a 46-year-old woman receiving hormone therapy after breast cancer surgery. She developed cough-variant asthma 5 years ago, and though she has received drug therapy, the symptoms aggravated. Cough continued to appear at night without improvement of asthma symptoms. However, the symptoms improved with subsequent administration of kumibinroto. In Case 2, the patient was a 47-year-old woman who developed cough-variant asthma after childbirth, which repeatedly worsened and improved. The cough-variant asthma aggravated after change of workplace and did not improve with drug therapy. However, asthma symptoms improved with oral administration of kumibinroto and hangekobokuto, and subsequent administration of kumibinroto alone. In both patients, the asthma was seasonal. These cases suggest that kumibinroto administration may contribute to the improvement of cough-variant asthma.