History, epidemiology, clinical features, clinical diagnosis, laboratory diognosis, treatmen and prophylaxis of mycoplasma infections in human are reviewed, calling attention to their relatively high incidences in the field of respiratory infections in Japan as well as in foreign countries.
Tests of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI), complement-fixation (CF) and neutralization (NT) against the NAKAYAMA-RFVL strain of Japanese encephalitis virus were carried out on 169 patients affected with Japanese encephalitis during acute illness and convalescence between 1962 and 1966. 1) LLC-MK2, a stable cell line established by Hull et al., from a rhesus monkey kidney was used for the NT test. The NT antibodies were assayed in the monolayer cultures based on inhibition of cytopathic effect by the constant varying serum technique. The antigen was the infected supernatant fluid, which was started from the suspension of infected suckling mice brains and then serial passage in the cells was carried out at least twelve times. The amount of infectious virus present in the cultured fluids, was estimated to be between 10-6.50 TCD50/ml and 10-6.75 TCD50/ml. The titers of NT antibody estimated by this method were approximately equivalent to those by the intra-cercbral test in mice. 2) All 159 cases which could be followed up through convalescence showed a clear-cut rise of antibody titer in all of HI, CF and NT tests against the Nakayama antigen. It was the longest observed case; bleeding occurred for 563 days. 3) More than half of the cases possesed the HI antibody within the first few days of disease, and in all cases the antibody was detectable within the first week. The antibody reached the maximum titer in 62.9% of all cases by the 14th day of illness and in 96.9% of those by the 28th day. The maximum titer was 1: 160 or more in 89.9% of those and 1: 640 or more in 42.1%. The HI antibody was detectable with one exception in 41 cases which were followed up over a six month period. 4) The CF antibody was not detectable within the first few days of disease in more than half of the cases but appeared within the 14th day in all cases with one exception. The antibody reached the maximum titer in 48.4% of all cases by the 14th day and in 82.4% of those by the 28th day. The maximum titer was 1: 16 or more in 92.5% of the cases and 1: 64 or more in 61.0%. In 40 cases which were observed over a six month period, the CF antibody was detectable in 80% of the cases but not detectable in 20%. 5) In more than half of the cases the NT antibody appeared within the first few days of illness and in all cases developed within the 8th day. The antibody reached the maximum titer by the 14th day in 62.9% of all cases and in 97.5% of those by the 28th day. The maximum titer was 1: 16 or more in 95.0% of the cases and 1: 16 or more in 43.4%. The NT antibody was demonstrated at a significant level in all 41 cases which were followed up over a six month period. 6) The HI and NT antibodies appeared and reached the maximum titer simultaneously but the appearance and peak of CF antibody was slightly delayed as compared with the HI and NT antibodies. In most of the cases in which all the antibodies of three sorts were detectable, a tenth of the HI antibody titer was nearly equivalent to the CF and NT antibody titers. With respect to changes in antibody titer the following tendencies were noted: the CF antibody tended to decrease rapidly, the HI antibody decreased, and the NT antibody persisted over a long period at a conspiciously detectable level. 7) In many of affected individuals aged 50 or more these antibodies elevated significantly. However, it should be borne in mind that the cases responded at a barely detectable level also belonged to this age group. 8) In 17 of 169 cases who had received vaccination, the antibodies tended to elevate more rapidly, the maximum titer being higher than others. 9) Among 59 cases in which Japanese encephalitis was ruled out serologically and clinically, the NT antibody was demonstrated in 22 cases and both the HI and NT antibodies in 16 cases but the CF antibody was not detectable in any cases.
Since the summer 1966, the author has had chances, through the courtesy of Nakataki Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Inc., of clinical applications of a medical product called γ-Oryzanol (γ-OZ) on four patients of ulcerative colitis. γ-OZ, a derivative from Oryzanol which is a mixture of several types of ferulates of triterpenoid alcohols and small amount of other components extracted from rice bran and rice germ oil, is said to be effective to what is called autonomic nervous syndrome. The four patients, having had sanguinous purulent or mucous appearance in their feces, but shown no detectable infectious evidence and been considered, in every respect, to be of acute phase of ulcerative colitis, were originally treated with ordinary methods, that is, antibiotics, steroids, fluid infusions or vitamins, without any significant improvement. Then, they were given γ-OZ preparations, daily 10 mg intramusculary and/or 3 tablets (one tablet contains 3 mg of γ-OZ) orally. The results were remarkable. They appeared to have almost completely healed and were all able to discharge from the hospital within one month. The author hopes further more cases of ulcerative colitis be made trial with this drug.
It is well known that the broad spectrum antibiotic effect can cause abnormal growth of fungi such as candida in digestive tracts. In this consideration clinical experiments were attempted with combined preparation of Tetracycline (TC) and Amphotericin B (AMPH) known as an antifungal antibiotic. Feces was cultured on Candida GS media and candida grown on it were counted. One tablet of this preparation contains 250 mg of TC and 50 mg of AMPH. The results were as follows: In twenty four healthy adults without any antibiotic given, average count of candida in feces was estimated to be 1.5×103/g. In nine in-patients with infectious diseases, mostly lung tuberculosis, daily dose of 16-18 tablets of TC-AMPH, four or three times per day, was continuously given orally and changing count of candida in feces was checked daily. In all cases tested, inhibitory effect to candida was evidently shown during the medication, even its disappearance being seen in some cases. The status reversed after its discontinuation. The similar results were obtained in mice experiments. The sensitivity of 37 strains of candida isolated from human feces in this institute against AMPH was determined with agar plate dilution method using Candida GS media. The MIC value turned out to be within 0.1-0.8mcg/ml.
Host-parasite relationships in typhoid and paratyphoid patients with tachycardia were observed. from the standpoint of the autonomic nervous system, which constitutes the framework of the auto adaptation mechanism of the human body, and analyzed by the biological binary digit and the following conclusions were obtained. 1. When hosts with sympathicotonic constitution are stimulated by the second-phase factors (the factors lowering mitosis of the neutropoietic system in the bone marrow), adaptational disturbances, occur, resulting sometimes in death. 2. It can be thought as acute adaptational disturbances that typhoid and paratyphoid patients with tachycardia (pathogenic factors: the second-phase factor and host's constitutional condition: sympathicotonia) are apt to fall into death, particularly, it was noted that all of patients with typhoid and paratyphoid fever associated with Basedow's disease, which showed extreme sympathicotonia, died, and the prognosis was absolutely poor. 3. Neoplasms (cancers) can be seen as chronic adaptational disturbances which occur in the same host-stimulant factor relation as that in acute adaptational disturbances. That is, in hosts with sympathicotonic constitution, long-term stimulation by the second-phase factors brings about an abnormal cell-stimulant factor reaction, and its terminal picture can be recognized as an abnormal cell disease (neoplasm). 4. Therefore, the defense mechanism in the course of 2-4 weeks in typhoid and paratyphoid patients with tachycardia suggests the carcinogenic mechanism of the human body in 40-70 years.