Preventive effect of garlic extract added with vitamine B1, B12, and liver extracts against influenza infection in mice (ddYS) pernasally inoculated with influenza virus AO/PR 8 strain was studied. The experiment revealed that the garlic extract, contrary to Japanese encephalitis case, further hightened the preventive effect of influenza vaccines and in the case of using alone it was as effective as vaccines. In order to analyze that augmented preventive activity against influenza infection, the activity of globulin fraction extracted from the mice was measured. But, no increase has been seen in the activity in that fraction. Then, it is presumed that it is not neutralization antibody but other preventive factor or factors that was prompted to increase.
On the intestinal contents and the internal organs from three pigs and three cows dead after showing enterotoxemia, the isolation, identification and typing of Cl. welchii were attemped. The identification of Cl. welchii was based on colonial morphology, stormy fermentation in litmas milk, biological characteristics and lecithinase reaction on Willis' medium. The typing of Cl. welchii was carried out according to the classification of Oakley by toxin-antitoxin neutralization test and of Yoshizawa et al. by the method of agglutination test. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Cl. welchii was isolated from intestinal contents and internal organs in high level of 105 to 107 per gram. 2) α-toxin of Cl. welchii was detected in filtrates prepared from intestinal contents of duodenum and jejunum of animals of both species. 3) α-toxigenicity of Cl. welchii isolated was so high, ranging from 2.5 to 6.0. 4) Cl. welchii belonged to type A except for isolates from duodenum of Cattle case B and C. 5) Cl. welchii isolated from lung of Pig case A was heat resistance, but others were heat sensitive strains. 6) Spore formation was observed in all strains of isolates. 7) In organism isolated from duodenum of Cattle case B and C, the produced toxin was not perfectly neutralized by type A antitoxin, furthermore this toxin killed mice by intravenous injection. From the results of these investigations, three pigs and three cows which died after an acute illness were diagnosed as enterotoxemia due to Cl. welchii type A strains producable of α-toxin in high degree.
Serum specimens obtained from 1325 people living under various conditions in southern part of Japan during the period 1969 through 1971 were investigated for Australia antigen (Au-Ag). Testing for Au-Ag was done by micro-Oucterlony's method (MO) using AUS-tect supplied by Abbott Laboratories and single radial immunodiffusion. test (SRID) using Eisai plate supplied by Eisai Company. Test method and AU-Ag positive rate: Out of 828 serum specimens tested, 27 were concommittantly positive by the both MO and SRID, and only one case showed a split (MO negative and SRID positive). Districts, living and physical conditions, age and AU-Ag positive rate: Positive rate was 1.4% out of 221 outpatients under 25 years of age in a hospital in Fukuoka city, Kyushu island; positive rate was 5.6% in 305 inhabitants of Iriomote island (southernmost island of Okinawa), in that, the percentage was increased as the age was getting smaller-26% in age 5-9, and 14 (80%) out of all 17 AU-Ag positive cases were under 16. Eight cases (47.1%) were found positive intrafamilially (2 or 3 members in 3 families each); In pregnant women in Amami Islands, only 0.9% out of 347 were found postitive; Among institutionalized children, the frequency of AU-Ag was 4.0% in crippled patients in Kitakyushu city, 3.4% in 116 mentally retarded patients in Oita prefecture and none in 79 severe psychomotor retarded children in Fukuoka city; There was no positive case among 31 patients with Down's syndrome at home and among 5 patients with infantile hepatitis. These data indicate that subtropical climate is one of the important factors influencing the epidemiology of AU-Ag and the possibility of intrafamilial infections cannot be denied.