Classification of staphylococci by phage typing has not been brought to widespread use mainly because of procedural complexity and relatively low typability. On the other hand, serological classification has been attempted by many workers, such as Heina (1922), Julianelle (1922), Yonemura (1936), Cowan (1939), Oeding (1952), and Akiyama (1959), who showed that pathogenic staphylococci could be subdivided by means of agglutination reactions. Serological method is less complicated in procedures than phage typing but not popularized yet. The reason seemed to be the lability in the structure of antigen. Akiyama found that the treatment of the bacteria with 2% NAOH completely inhibited the spontaneous agglutination. He used boiled bacteria for the production of immune sera, and for absorption and agglutination tests. Reexamining Akiyama's method, the authors found that using alkali-treated boiled bacteria sometimes causes some change in the structure of antigen in the course of successive subcultures.
During one year period of 1973, 15 cases of long term biliary carriers of typhoid and peratyphoid underwent surgical treatment of biliary tracts, in all of which the gallstones were observed. To get the evidence of the stones as many and clearly as possible, all cases received either one of the following two techniques of percutaneous cholangiography immediately before the operations. 1. Percutaneous cholecysto-cholangiography. Guided by duodenal sweep, gas shadow of the colon, and if obtained the gallbladder contour by orally or intravenously applied cholecystography and positive stone shadow under the fluoroscopy, the puncture was done from abdominal anterior wall below the right costal margin or from 7th or 8th ICS of the right thorax to the gall bladder and injected the contrast medium to get the picture of gallbladder and biliary tracts. 2. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography Intrahepatic bile duct was punctured through the right side of the thorax to get visualization of the bile ducts and gall bladder. The puctures were succeeded in 13 cases out of 15 and X-ray and operative diagnosis were consistent in them. In two unsucceeded cases who had gallbladder stones, there were technical failures owing to their too much obesity.
Whooping cough has been prevailing in Miura Peninsula, particularly densely in and around Miura and Yokosuka cities since June, 1972 until now March, 1973.The number of the patients treated at only such three hospitals as Saint Joseph Hospital (Yokosuka city), Yokohama Kyosai Hospital, and Miura Municipal Hospital totaled as much as 138 in that period. Epidemiological and clinical investigations were performed on this epidemie under the cooperation of several hospitals, laboratories and local health centers. Subjected in this paper were 68 patients, 50 out of which were proved bacilli positive (Phase-1 organism of Bordetella pertussis). In the field of recent literature, particularly in domestic one, very few have reported pertussis epidemie in which the bacilli could be proved, and this report is for the first time since shinozuka and Fujino (1953) and Kasuga (1954). The results are summarized as follows: An age-distribution curve of the patients bearing its peak at the year of age 1 was obtained and in accordance with the progression of the epidemic a trend of transition of the year of age of the patient toward higher age group was also observed. In referring to the anamnesis-note of mother and child, 24 among 68 patients were confirmed to have been vaccinated once to four times. Among the patients vaccinated, 9 received one vaccination, 5, two, 7, three, respectively, and those receiving the fourth vaccination (the 2nd term vaccination), i.e., those receiving complete vaccination were 3. Finally the number of the non-vaccinated was 44. As regards the inoculation rate (corresponding to those receiving 2nd term vaccination) it counted, within the district of Yokohama General Health Center, 52.6% in 1971 and 61.1% in 1972. Within the district of Miura City Health Center it counted 66.5% in 1971 and 59.8% in 1972, respectively. In the case of the former (Yokosuka) the inoculation rate at the time of 1st vaccination was 89% in 1971 and 93% in 1972. In the case of the latter (Miura) the corresponding figures were 74.6% in 1971 and67% in 1972, respectively. In the vaccinated group there were many individuals, the leucocyte count of which was small in number (less than 10, 000) from the early stage of the disease. The mean value of the leucocyte count was apparently less than that of non-vaccinated group. No.50, an eleven year old child belonging to the non-vaccinated group and showing leucopenia and low percentage of lymphocyte as well exhibited a symptom of shock after the third inoculation of vaccine. The antibody (agglutinin) titer in patient's blood was high agaist the prevalent strain and low against the vaccine strain being used up to now. The agglutinin titre of the vaccinated was, in average, higher than those non-vaccinated. In the statistical view point, the number of the pertussis patients discovered at the pediatric section of Saint Joseph Hospital fluctuated almost in parallel with the statistics notified throughout Japan in the period as far as we could see. It is our impresion that this hospital can play the role as a fixed observatory station which can suggest a general trend of the country. Pertussis is said to be in the verge of extinction and actually the number of the notifications aretapering year by year. There are some who go so far as to say whooping cough is “Disease of vision”. But it really exists. Pertussis non-existing theory is only a myth.