One hundred and thirty-six strains of Group A streptococci isolated from children with streptococcal infection at Asahikawa City Hospital and Ebetsu City Hospital, during a period from July 1974 to June 1975, were typed serologically by means of T-typing, and susceptibilities of them to eleven commonly used antibiotics were determined. 1) One hundred and thirty-one strains (96.3%) were typable with an occurrence of type 12 in 97 strains (71.3%), type 1 in 13 (9.6%), type 3 in 7 (5.1%), and small numbers of strains were distributed in other types. 2) Emergence of resistant strains to Penicillin-G, Aminobenzylpenicillin, Aminocyclohexylpenicillin, Cephaloridine, Cephalexin, and Cephalothin was not observed. 3) More than 60 percent of strains were found to be highly resistant to Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Josamycin, and Lincomycin at concentrations of more than 32 mcg/ml. Many of these strains were multiply resistant among these antibiotics. 4) The type 12 was found higher in prevalence rate of resistant strains than any other types. It must be emphasized that 86.6 percent of 97 of type 12 strains were resistant to two macrolide antibiotics tested, Erythromycin and Josamycin, whereas none of the other types was resistant to any of thesemacrolides. 5) It was suggested that the serotypes of Group A streptococci are related to their antibiotic resistant pattern.
Hayflick et al. (1965) reported that mycoplasma (M.) orale was isolated directly on PPLO agar from the bone marrow samples of patients with acute leukemia, but it has been still unknown whether M. orale has been identified as a pathogen in some kinds of human diseases. However, it has been generally accepted that M. orale does not have a pathogenicity in the human. In order to determine the significance of the existence of M. orale in the respiratory tract, experiments in the hamster infected with M. orale were performed. Materials and Methods; Young hamsters, 3 weeks old, were utilized. A suspension of M. orale strain containing 1.6-107 colony forming unit (CFU) per ml was introduced into the hamster by the inhalation of an aerosol spray. Throat swabs were cultured onto each of two PPLO agar plates at intervals of 2-3 days for up to 42 days after exposure. The hamsters were also sacrificed at intervals of 2 to 3 days. During this time, blood samples were taken for serological studies. Both lungs were removed aseptically for bacteriological and histological studies. For controls, a group of hamsters was infected with M. pneumoniae and a 2nd group was given PPLO broth alone. Then these animals were killed and evaluated by the same methods. Results; In the groups infected with M. orale and in those exposed to PPLO broth alone, only one hamster organisms isolated from the nasopharynx or from the lungs for up to 42 days after inoculation. In the M. orale group minimal histopathologic inflammatory changes including edema in the bronchus observed from 2 to 21 days after infection. In contrast, in the group infected with M. pneumoniae, organisms were present in cultures of the lungs of all of the hamsters in the maximum concentration of 108 CFU per ml during the period of observation. Further findings such as peribronchitis and interstitial pneumonitis were present in this group for up to 28 days. No significant differences were recognized in the serological and the hematological studies in these three groups.
As shown in the results reported in the previous part 1, M. orale had no pathogenicity for the hamster. In this report it was investigated whether the existence of M. orale and M. salivarium in the respiratory tract is common in normal asymptomatic individuals and in patients with respiratory diseases and if these organisms play any pathogenic role in the acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases. (a) Role of M. orale and M. salivarium in normal individuals. In 564 university students and 162 middle school students, mycoplasma isolations were made using TSB solution under aerobic and anaerobic (95% N2 + 5% CO2) conditions. Of the 726 isolations made, 541 (74.5%) were M. salvarium, 26 (3.6%), M. orale, 2 (0.3%), M. pneumoniae, and 77 (10.6%) were others and 80 (11.0%) showed no growth. There was no relationship between the mycoplasma isolations and the complement-fixation titers. M. orale and M. salivarium were not isolated more frequently from the patients with oropharyngeal pathology than from normal individuals. (b) Role of M. orate and M. salivarium of the patients with respiratory diseases. Six hundred forty-four specimens from the patients with respiratory diseases have been studied for mycoplasma. Mycoplasma species were isolated in 47.2% of total patients which included 37.6% of M. salivarium, 7.9% of M. orale, and 1.7% of M. pneumoniae. As shown in table 3, mycoplasma species have been isolated most frequently (61.5%) in the patients with bronchial asthma, followed by bacterialpneumonia (50.0%), and chronic obstructive lung diseases (49.0%). The isolation rate was lower in the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and bronchiectasis. M. salivarium could be cultivated from only one of 18 specimens obtained by aspiration through a vinyl tube inserted transorally. No pathogenic correlation was noted between mycoplasma and bacterial organisms present in the oropharynx of the patients with respiratory diseases. However, from the group of patients treated with some antibiotics prior to specimen collection especially macrolide derivatives, tetracycline and kanamycin, lower mycoplasma isolation rates were found. The results reported in this study did not indicate that M. orale and M. salivarium had a significant pathogenic role in the respiratory tract diseases.
With progress in chemotherapy, typhoid fever has failed to come up with not only typical clinical features, but also marked elevation of antibody titers, We studied Widal reaction with 2ME treatment sera and try to evaluate the clinical meaning of Widal reaction. Two hundred and fifty three samples from 33 patients and 8 carriers were examined. The results were summarized as follows; 1. In patients, Vi-and O-antibody was belonging to the IgM class in the initial stage of hospitalization. 2. In carriers, Vi-and O-antibody was belonging to the IgG class in the initial stage of hospitalization. 3. In bacillary negative patients, Vi-titer showed 1: IO and O-titer maintained low levels. 4. V-antibody titer more correlated with bacterial excretion than O-antibody titer. When patients were re-excreting bacteria, Vi-antibody belonging to IgM was appeared.