The host-parasite relationship between intestinal bacterial flora and infection with intestinal parasites was immunologically studied by the immunoenzyme technique in C57BL/6 germfree mice infected with N brasiliensis. Canges of immunoglobulin-producing cells in a mucosal bassel layer was examined by the immunoenzyme technique. The result revealed that developments of systemic and regional immune systems was suppressed in the germfree mice, though an intestinal bacterial flora affects the host's immune system. Immunoglobulin-producing cells differed in number for the conventional and germfree groups respectively. Most of those cells were observed in a mucosal bassel layer near the villus base of the intestinum tenue and on a ductal surface of a mucosal basel layer of the intestinum crassum. In the gremfree group compared to the conventional group, IgA-producing cells significantly decresed in the number, while IgG and IgM-producing cells decresed slightly. Since immunoglobulin-producing cells were not greatly affected among the group infected with N brasiliensis little effects were observed in an infection with intestinal parasites and an intestinal bacterial flora seemed to play a major role. The plaque method by Jerne was applied in order to examine reaction of SRBC. In conventional group, large amounts of IgM-PFC and IgG-PFC were observed in aged mice. A similar tendency was observed among the infected groups. In the germfree group, an obvius increse was seen compred to the conventional group. These results suggested that the possibility of immunoglobuline producing plasma cells was preserved in the germfree mice. The amount of Serum-IgA indicated a tendency to increase when a mouse survied for additional weeks and it was affected by infection. The amount was generally low for the germfree group in comparison with the conventional group. IgG increased in amount for the conventional group when a mouse surived for additional weeks, indicating the obvious effects of infection. Differences, caused apparently by infection, were observed among the aged and infected mice of the germfree group. An increase in IgG was observed for the germfree, infected and aged group. IgM was in higher in amount than 10 week-old. It dropped when the mice became 20 week-old. The infected group indicated a higher rate for all markers than the contrast group. Among the germfree groups, the infected group indicated a higher rate for the all markers.
The appearance of cellular immunity in C57BL/6 germfree mice infected with N. brasiliensis was studied by the delayed hypersensitivity response with picryl chloride and the footpad reaction, and the following results were obtained. In both the conventional and germfree groups, primary and secondary reactions were observed in the delayed hypersensitivity response due to picryl chloride. There was a pattern of decrease with a peak on the tenth week, thereafter decreasing further with the advancement of age. The footpad reaction was observed a pattern of retraction of footpad with a peak on the tenth day after the N. brasiliensis infection in both the conventional and germfree groups of mice at the age of three weeks. The common antigenicity was studied in the induce-antigen by the footpad reaction, finding common antigenicity between the antigen of N brasiliensis and the Salmonella typhimurium. In comparing the group infected with N. brasiliensis and the conventional group, a stronger footpad swelling was observed in the group infected with N. brasiliensis. However, no swelling was observed in nude mice.
Recently, imported pet birds were coming up as important sources of psittacosis in human. Serological and pathological examinations were carried out on a total 242 pet birds (7 species). These birds were imported from Formosa and India in 1981-1982. Serological examinations against Chlamydia psittaci were performed by direct complement fixation (CF) test. And then, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed on the species without the presence of CF antibodies. Pathological examinations were done on the sero positive cases among these birds. CF antibodies were found in 19 of 242 pet birds (7.9%). These positive cases were distributed in 4 of 56 budgerigars, in 8 of 47 bengalees, in 2 of 9 Agapornis lilianaes, 2 of 30 canaries and in 3 of 31 amadavats. Java sparrows and rice birds had not CF antibodies, but HI antibodies were demonstrated in 9 of 37 java sparrows and in 4 of 32 rice birds. CF titers of sero positive cases were distributed between 1: 4 and 1: 128, HI titers were between 1: 8 and 1: 16. Most of bengalees had higher titers than other species. Swellings of the liver and spleen were observed macroscopically in one (bengalee) among 19 sero positive cases. Histologically, 14 of 19 cases had the lesions such as diffuse or focal necroses and inflammatory cell infiltrations in their livers, and the inclusion bodies were observed in the livers and/or spleens of 11 birds. It was suggested that these histological findings were caused by Chlamydia psittaci.
From 1979 through 1981, there were 15 outbreaks of campylobacter enteritis, involving 858 patients in Tokyo. Ten out of 15 outbreaks were found between May and September, and 5 outbreaks were in the winter. Places of the occurrence were at hotel (8 outbreaks), domitory of university or company (3), nursery school, orphan asylum, family and restaurant. Major symptoms observed in 849 patients were diarrhea (84.1%), abdominal pain (74.1%), fever (48.2%), headache (30.0%), nausea (31.1%) and vomiting (9.4%). In only two outbreaks, the vehicles for transmission were confirmed. They were implicated raw clam in outbreak number 2 and chicken meat in outbreak number 9. The period of incubation time based on the time of consumption of the raw clam was 20-60 hours (geometric average 30 hours) and in outbreak number 9 was 20-104 hours (geometric average 49 hours). In the other outbreaks the incriminated food, source and route of contamination could not be demonstrated. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated 278 (44.1%) of 630 feces obtained from patients of 15 outbreaks. In outbreak number 15, C. jejuni was detected in 26 of 30 patients, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli 0111: K58 was also detected in 9 cases. By our provisional serotyping schema, 295 (94.2%) of 313 cultures tested were typable. Twelve serotypes were identified from the 15 outbreaks with one involving two different serotypes. In outbreak number 9, the vehicle was able to be traced by serotyping the siolates. Antibody response was variable as determined by the agglutination titer against the homologous isolate. In only one of 7 outbreaks investigated, a response was demonstrated.
The clinical efficacy and safety of cefpiramide (SM-1652, CPM) were compared with those of cefmetazole (CMZ) in 284 patients with respiratory tract infections by a double-blind study at 42 institutions in Japan. Either of CPM or CMZ was assigned to each patient at random. Administration was performed by intravenous drip infusion for a fixed period of 14 days and the daily dosage was fixed at 2g for CPM or 4g for CMZ. A committee consisting of several physicians who had not been informed of the name of actually given drug, made a judgement on the severity, therapeutic results and presence or absence of side effects in each patient based on the detailed subjective and objective symptoms, laboratory findings and chest X-ray films. Subsequently, the key code for the drug administered to each patient was opened, and a statistical analysis was carried out by a comparison between two groups (CPM group and CMZ group) with respect to background factors, clinical effectiveness, bacteriological effectiveness, degree of improvement and side effects. Out of 284 cases, 236 cases were evaluted for clinical efficacy (CPM; 119 cases, CMZ; 117 cases) with 141 cases of pneumonia (CPM; 69 cases, CMZ; 72 cases) and 95 cases of chronic respiratory tract infection (CPM; 50 cases, CMZ; 45 cases), and 272 cases for tolerability (CPM; 140 cases, CMZ; 132 cases). It was indicated that there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding background factors except CRP and initial degree of chest X-ray findings in patients with pneumonia. The severe cases of initial chest X-ray findings in patients with pneumonia were existed significantly more in CMZ group than in CPM group. With regard to the therapeutic effect of CPM and CMZ in the treatment of respiratory tract infection, those drugs were rated as effective in 91.3% of cases in the CPM group and 83.3% of cases in the CMZ group against pneumonia, and in 78.0% of cases in the CPM group and 80.0% of cases in the CMZ group against chronic respiratory tract infection. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning clinical effectiveness, bacteriological effectiveness and degree of improvement. The incidence rate of side effects and abnormal laboratory findings was 4.3% and 18.6% in the CPM group, and 6.1% and 22.0% in the CMZ group, respectively, without significant differences between the two groups. These results indicate that CPM is a usefull drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections.
Two autopsy cases of fulminating herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis confirmed by immunofluorescent and electron microscopic examinations of autopsied brain tissue were reported. Case 1, a 26-year-old female with complaints of fever, coma and involuntary movement was admitted to our hospital. In the serum and CSF taken at the 11th day after onset, HSV antibody measured by ELISA system indicated significant value. CT findigns of brain showed mass effect of the right side, linear and ring-like enhancement. Autopsy revealed a pathological feature of acute necrotizing encephalitis. From the autopsy specimens HSV antigen and particles were observed by fluorescent antibody technique and electron microscopic examination, respectively. Case 2, a 24-year-old female with complaints of plain of the face and eye ball, coma and epilepsy was admitted to our hospital. In the serum and CSF taken at the 26th day after onset, HSV antibody measured by ELISA was considered to be diagnostic value, and CT findings of brain showed linear enhancement. At autopsy diagnosis of HSV encephalitis was confirmed by fluorescent antibody method, although histological changes were slight. Possibility of clinical diagnosis in the early stage, especially the usefulness of CT scan and antibody measurement by ELISA system were discussed.