We studied the effect of immunoglobulins (monomeric IgG, monomeric IgA, secretoryIgA) and bronchoalveolar lavage on the bactericidal activity by neutrophils. Results are as follows 1. Escherichia coli (E.coli) was killed by secretory IgA, and E. coli was more killed by secretory IgA with neutrophils. 2. Bronchoalveolar lavage enhanced the bactericidal activity by neutrophils less than fresh plasma. 3. Secretory IgA or monomeric IgA enhanced the bactericidal activity by neutrophils with bronchoalveolar levage.
The usefulness of corticosteroids for septic shock lung in accordance with some mecanismes of shock lung-developing were investigated. 1. In the endotoxin rabbits, peripheral PMNs were decreased immediately after endotoxin injection, and serum concentration of β-glucuronidase was increased. The edematous changes in endotoxin lung were suppressed by the pretreatment of Super Oxide Dismutase.These changes were not seen in the neutropenic animals made by premedcation of Nitrogen Mustard, in spite of the endotoxin injection. In the clinical observation of 107 cases of gram negative sepsis, the incidence of shock lung was 28.8% in 93 patients whose leucocyte count was more than 3, 000/mm3, however any case of shock lungdeveloping was not seen in 14 patients whose peripherial leucocyte was less than 3, 000/mm3. From aboves, lysosomal enzyme and or Super Oxide, both of which are released from peripheral PMNs, may play an important role in the occurence of septic shock lung. 2. In animal examination, the increase in blood endotoxin, the decrease of peripheral PMNs, the increase in β-glucuronidase, the increase in volume of lymph flow and the mophologic changes in lung tissue were significantly suppresed by the administration of corticosteroids. Twenty six patients of septic shock lung were analysed from view patients of their prognosis. In 18 cases, taking with steroids treatment, the mortality was 33%, but it was 75% in 8 cases of non-steroid one. There was stastical significance between them. Above all, the steroid therapy was more effective in patients when it was administrated at early stage of the shock lung. In five cases, the steroid therapy was started at the stage of pre-shock lung, accordance with the predict sign of shock lung that were previously reported by our group. The shock lung-developing was prevented in all five cases. 3. From above, corticosteroids might be suppressed the early stage in the course of the shock lungdeveloping, therefore corticosteroids might be useful drug for septic shock lung when it is used at earlier stage of this syndrome.
Tween 60, one of the surfactants, is commonly used for isolation of Legionella species from environmental samples as pretreating agent of soil. We have studied on the influence of each Tween (Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60 and Tween 80) to the growth and esterase activity of Legionella species and Legionella-like organisms. The tested strains suspended in 0.01 mol phosphate buffer saline (PBS, pH 7.2) were exposed to various cocentrations of the Tweens. As the result, Legionella pneumophila (Philadelphia 1) was not influenced at all of the Tweens, but other strains of Legionella species were decreased, in viable cells after 6 hours exposure to almost all kinds of the Tweens. There was closely correlation between the decrease of viable cells and the concentration of the Tweens. Tween 20 showed bactericidal action against L.bozemanii, L. gormanii and L. longbeachae in the concentration of 0.1%. The inhibitory activity of Tween 60 against the growth of Legionella species on B-CYE agar was less than those of other Tweens tested, but over than 0.5% concentration of this agent inhibited the growth of almost of all strains except L. pneumophila (ATCC33155, ATCC33215 and ATCC33153). From the result, the procedure of the isolation of Legionella species and Legionella-like organisms from soil must be finished within 6 hours exposure of 0.1 to 0.2% of Tween 60.
We have studied the correlation of the oxygen tolelance of strictly anaerobic bacteria which were thought to be the periodontopathic bacteria with survival and growth of the bacteria under the aerobic condition in oral cavities. Oxygen tolelance was expressed by decimal reduction time of the initial cell counts to decline to 1/10 by aeration. The D-time was from 2 hrs to 10 hrs when the initial viable counts were 102-105 cells/plate in case of Bacteroides gingivalis, Bacteroides intermedius, Bacteroides loescheii, Bacteroides melaninogenicus and Fusobacterium nucleatum while D-time of Bacteroids fragilis which was used as the control showed the value of 18-48 hrs. Therefore, all of strains used for the experiment were weak oxygen tolelant organisms.
A collective health examination was carried out in inhabitants more than 40 years old of a small mountain village in August, 1981. All the examinees were inoculated with influenza vaccine, and blood samples collected from them. The aged were examined for the p ossession of HI antibody more than 64 in titer against influenza virus strains which had been isolated from the epidemics in years before 1976. The rate of possession of HI antibody against the A/PR/8/34 strain was low, or 31.3-31.8, in the age group of 60-69 years and that of 80 years and over. It was rather high, or 70.3-70.7% and 61.9%, in the age group of 40-59 years and that of 70-79 years, respectively. The rate of possession of HI antibody against the A/Omachi/1/53 strain was low, or 12.2-43.2%, in every age group. The rate of possession of HI antibody against the A/Adachi/2/57 and the A/Aichi/2/68 strain were ratger high, or 63.8-65.6% and 71.9-76.2%, respectively, in every age group. That of HI antibody against the Hswl N1 type of the A/NJ/8/76 strain was considerably high, or 65.6-90.5%, in the age groups of 60 years and over. The same aged were examined for the possession of HI antibody against influenza virus strains which had been isolated from the epidemics in and after 1979. The rates of possession of HI antibody against the A/USSR/92/77, the A/Kumamoto/37/79, and the B/Bangkok/1/79 strain were low, or 25.0-31.8%, 18.8-27.3%, and 23.8-31.8%, respectively, in every age group. Those of HI antibody against the B/Kanagawa/3/76 and the B/Singapore/222/79 strain were low, or 22.7-37.5% and 22.7-40.6%, respectively, in every age group. The aged were inoculated subcutaneously with a single dose of 0.7 ml of commercial influenz vaccine ana examined for the production of HI antibody. The rates of production of HI antibody more than fourfold against the A/Kumamoto/37/79, the A/Bangkok/1/79, and the B/Kanagawa/3/79 strain were 56.0-75.8%, 48.0-58.6%, and 28.0-48.2%, respectively, in the age groups of 60 years and over. Those of HI antibody against the three epidemic virus strains, the A/USSR/9/77, the A/Niigata/102/81, and the B/Singapore/222/79, were 44.0-76.0%, 51.7-70.0%, and 32.0-64.2%, respectively. Since the aged possessed no HI antibody against the virus strains which had caused recent epidemics, it was highly possible for them to contract infection. On the other hand, a sufficient production of HI antibody was noticed in them after inoculation with vaccine. From these results it WAS concluded that it was necessary for the aged to be inoculated positively with influenza vaccine.
Seven strains of group B streptococcus (GBS) of various types were examined for their virulence in adult and neonates mice by intraperitonea and intracerebra inoculations. The neonates mice were commonly more sensitive against the challenge than the adult mice. Pregnant mice were immunized with anti type Ia antiserum or heat-killed vaccine, and inoculated with GBS intravaginally before the parturition. The mean number of per litter delivered from normal 13.7, while GBS-inoculated control pregnants was 3.8 or less. Those values obtained from pre-immunized pregnants were intermediates. The neonates which delivered from actively or adoptively immunized pregnants showed significantly higher protectivity against challenge of homologous and heterologous type strains than those of neonates from normal pregnants. It is concluded that either active or adoptive maternal immunization in mice resulted the vertical protectivity against challenge of homologous and heterologous type (III) organisms.
To investigate the resistance of host against infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae, 100 human sera were examined for their passive protective activities in mice against challenge infection with strain K-9 of Klebsiella pneumoniae. With these examinations, 30 percent sera showed presence of the passive protective activity including 2 sera of relatively high activities. These passive protective activities were completely absorbed out either with anti-human IgG, and-human IgA or anti-human IgM goat sera. The activity was also absorbed out with capsular polysaccharide extracted from strain K-9. When this human serum was absorbed out with capsular polysaccharide and quantitated for their immunoglobulin contents, 21.0, 13.5 and 4.8 percent reduction of IgG, IgA and IgM were represented, respectively.
An outbreak of influenza A-subtype H3N2 occured in Japan from Jan. to Feb. in 1983. During the period of the outbreak, H3N2 virus was isolated from 29 pediatric outpatients in Nippon Kokan Hospital in Kanagawa Prefecture. The isolated strains were confirmed by HA analysis as closely resembling the prototype influenza A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2) but fairly different from the vaccine strain A/Niigata/102/81 virus. Therefore, influenza vaccination before the epidemic was considered ineffective and in fact, about one third of the school-age patients with positive culture had history of the vaccination. 10 strains were recovered from children under 2 years of age (mean age 10.7 M) and although high temperature was noted (mean 39.1°C), clinical manifestations were indistinguishable from those seen in the common cold and devoid of severe complications such as laryngitis and pneumonia. Transmission to the infants seemed to be by the members of family with influenza in 7 cases and there was an outbreak at the day-care center in 2 cases. Although infants have less oppotunities to go out, they seem to be heavily exposed to influenza viruses in their homes during an epidemic.
A total of 245 strains of Campylobacter jejuni including 111 from human diarrheal cases, 29 from cattle, 46 from poultry and 59 from wild birds, as well as 72 strains of Campylobacter coli, including 18 from human and 54 from swine were examined for their susceptibility in vitro to 9 antimicrobial agents, ampicillin (ABPC), erythromycin (EM), chloramphenicol (CP), tetracycline (TC), amikacin (AMK), gentamicin (GM), kanamycin (KM) cephaloridine (CER) and nalidixic acid (NA). Susceptibility was tested by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these agents according to an agar dilution method using Mueller-Hinton agar plates which contain 5% defibrinated horse blood. Growth of the test strains was observed after incubation of the inoculated plates at 37C for 48 hours under microaerophilic condition. AMK, EM and GM were the most active agents, inhibiting growth of all the human strains and more than 90% of the animal strains of C. jejuni at a concentration of 3.12μg/ml or less. ABPC, CP, and KM were also active, and their MICs for almost all the strains of C. jejuni ranged from 0.2 to 12.5μg/ml. All the strains of C. jejuni were inhibited by NA at 25μg/ml or less. CER showed only moderate to poor activity, and its MICs were distributed between≥100 and 3.12μg/ml. The susceptibility to TC was variable, and MICs gave a bimodal distribution. Strains resistant to this drug, which were inhibited at a concentration of 12.5μg/ml or more, were 69% in human strains, 55% in cattle strains, 22% in poultry strains and 10% in wild bird strains. The susceptibility pattern of C. coli against these agents were essentially same as that of C. jejuni. In the strains isolated from swine, however, appearance of the strains highly resistant to EM and KM were more common, representing 44% and 59%, respectively. Frequency appearance of TC-resistant strains was 33% in human strains, and 19% in swine strains. The strains resistant to multiple drugs were observed both in C. jejuni and C. coli.
Erythema infectiosum or fifth disease, is mild exanthematous infectious disease. It has been presumed to be due to virus for a long time, but no virus has been clarified. IgM and IgG specific antibodies to human parvovirus (HPV) were determined on the patient's sera of erythema infectiosum which occurred at 1977 and 1981 in Tokyo. Determination was done on 38 sera from 28 patients, 6 to 11 years old. Age-matched 17 control sera and additional 5 younger children of Kawasaki disease were also determined to HPV. The assay was based on solid phase antibody capture radioimmunoassay for anti-HPV IgM and IgG. Monoclonal HPV antibody was also used as a reagent in the assay. Both HPV IgM and IgG antibodies were detectd in 27/28 (96.4%) patients, and in 37/38 (97.4%) specimens. No HPV IgM was detected in all 17 control sera. HPV-IgG was detected in 10/17 (58.8%) control sera, Howevre, the mean titer of them was lower concentration than that of patient's sera. Additional 5 Kawasaki disease patients showed neither IgM nor IgG. HPV-IgM antibody in patients peaked at 1 week after onset and declined slowly. HPV-IgG antibody peaked at 3 weeks after onset but it seemed to be almost plateau from 1 week after onset. These data indicate that HPV is a cause of erythema infectiosum.