Induction of interferon (IFN) by Lactobacillus casei and L. acidophilus was examined with cytotoxicity and phagocytotic activity of macrophage activated with the bacilli. Interferon was induced by L. casei and was composed of IFN- & alpha;, - & beta;Aand-y. Penicilin (PC)-treated L. casei remarkably induced a high percentage of IFN-y. IFN-induction pattern of PC-treated L. casei was similar to that of a streptococcal immunopotentiator OK-432. The mouse spleen lymphoid cells activated with L. casei had a cytotoxic ability to mouse leukemia cells. The mouse peritoneal macrophages by the activation with L. casei were induced to increase in phagocytotic activity. These activation with L. casei may increase the anti-tumor activity to leukemia. However, Lactobacillus acidophilus apparently could not induce IFN.
We studied retrospectively the hospital acquired P. aeruginosa infection of the urinary tract in hospitalized patients with urological disease during the 12 years from 1976 to 1987. The results were as follows: 1. P. aeruginosa was isolated with the highest frequency in 1976 (15.9%, 46/289 Pts.) for hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection. Various preventive measures decreased this frequency to 5.1%(15/291 Pts.) by 1987. 2. P. aeruginosa was isolated with the highest frequency among patients with complicated urinary tract infection, in those with indwelling catheters (14.3%, 50/350 Pts.). 3. P. aeruginosa in feces was isolated from 1.4%-13.9% of the patients at the time of admission, increasing up to 5.0%-20.7% at discharge. However, these rates tended to decrease in recent years. 4. The annual changes of serotype distribution of P. aeruginosa isolated from urine and feces were similar. Although serotype C, E and G were dominant in 1976 and 1977, serotype A, B and G became dominant since 1978, with serotype E decreasing remarkably. 5. During hospitalization, urinary tract infection was found in 16.9%(12/71 Pts.) of the patients with P. aeruginosa isolated in their feces at the time of admission. In contrast, only 5.7%(157/2747Pts.) of those without P. aeruginosa in their feces had the infection during hospitalization. The rate of urinary tract infection (16.9%) decreased to 2.0%(2/99 Pts.) when oral administration of Polymyxin-B eliminated the P. aeruginosa isolated from feces at the time of admission. 6. Among the patients without P. aeruginosa in their feces at the time of admission, the higher isolation rate (15.1%, 28/186 Pts.) of P. aeruginosa in feces at discharge was observed in those having urinary tract infection upon admission than (5.1%, 122/2409 Pts.) those without it at that time. 7. Comparing the serotype of P. aeruginosa isolated from urine with feces, the identical serotype was found in 38.9%(21/54 Pts.) of the patients with both urinary and fecal P. aeruginosa. This result suggested that appoximately 40% of acquired hospital infection of P. aeruginosa was caused by self infection, while the remaining 60% was by cross infection.
Morphological investigation were made to analyze the pathogenicity of Campylobacter. The following results were obtained: In mouse ascites, the number of living extracellular C. fetus and C. jejuni decreased gradually but intracellular C. jejuni did not decreased remarkably after intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation. In mouse blood, the number of living C. fetus and C. jejuni decreased gradually after ip inoculation. However decrease of the number of living C. jejuni was slower than that of C. fetus. In cultured mouse abdominal macrophages (CMAMos), the number of C. fetus and C. jejuni increased. And increase of the number of normal C. fetus and C. jejuni were also observed in CMAMos by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFA). CMAMos were washed 6 hours after inoculation with C. fetus and C. jejuni, then they were incubated. C. fetus decreased gradually and the number of living bacteria were & le;2log10 CFU/tube 42 hours after washing. However C. jejuni did not decrease. C. fetus cells were disintegrated by digestion in the phagosomes in CMAM0 18 hours after washing by IFA and electron microscope. Outer membranes of C. fetus and C. jejuni were isolated and purified by the method of Miura and Mizushima. And it became apparent that their outer membranes were stable to EDTA-Lysozyme, furthermore, numerous pits with 5-8 nm in diameter were observed by negative staining. The major outer membrane protein (major OMP) with apparent MW of 46, 000-51, 000 dalton in C. fetus, and major OMP with apparent MW of 42, 000-46, 000 in C. jejuni were observed by Sodium bodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Resistance to digestion by macrophages were different between C. fetus and C. jejuni. However acrystallin surface layer was not observed in used strains. From these results, it is concluded that one of the pathogenic factors is resistance of C. fetus and C. jejuni outer membrane to digestion by macrophages.
Katayama strain was isolated as the causative agent from a patient with spotted fever group rickettsiosis by using nude mice in Anan-city, Tokushima, Japan, in October, 1987. The nude mice infected with the isolate showed weakness and splenomegaly and died in two or three weeks after the infection. The majority of infected normal mice recovered and acquired immunity. The Katayama strain was propagated well in BSC-1 cells and L cells. The fluorescent antibody-stained rickettsial particles were seen as diplobacillaly and diplococcal forms growing in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of infected cells. The indirect fluorescent antibody test using Katayama strain, R. sibirica 246 strain and Thai tick typhus TT-118 strain as antigens revealed that the specific antibodies against these antigens appeared and increased in the blood of the patient during the course of disease. And the antibody titers to the Katayama antigen were the highest of these three antigens. Agglutinin for Proteus OX-2 also appeared in the blood of the patient. The cross-immunofluorescent antibody test using Katayama, 246 and TT-118 strains as antigens and immune mouse sera against the three strains as antisera revealed that these strains showed cross-reaction and have a common antigen. Furthermore, it became obvious that the Katayama strain has the strain-specific antigen (s) different from the 246 strain and the TT-118 strain by using Anti-Katayama monoclonal antibodies which were produced by cell fusion techniques.
We studied experimental urinary tract infections in mice with 119 strains of Escherichia coli to know whether the strains isolated from feces of newborn babies were more vilulent on the urinary tract than the strains isolated from their mothers. Common 0 serogroups in the feces of babies were recovered more frequently and densely from the kidneys of mice than the other serogoups. The strains, which belonged to these serogroups and were isolated from babies, caused inflammatory responses in the kidneys of mice more severely than the other strains. Thus, we concluded that the strains which have affinity to babies, belong to the group of bacteria causing frequent urinary tract infections.
We conducted a clinical study on the relationship between bacteriuria, pyuria and subjective symptoms in 1353 female patients without any underlying disease but complaining of bladder irritability. The results were as follows: 1) Two-thirds of these patients met the standard criteria of typical acute cystitis by the Japanese UTI committee, while those remaining were judged to have atypical acute cystitis. 2) The symptom of pain on urination, one of the requirements to meet the standard criteria, was found in fifty eight percent of those with atypical acute cystitis. 3) Sixty one percent of the patients with atypical acute cystitis had pyuria of more than 10 WBCs/hpf and fifty one percent bacteriuria of more than 104 cfu/ml. 4) The analysis of the correlation between the degree of bacteriuria, the degree of pyuria and the severity of subjective symptoms revealed a stronger correlation between bacteriuria and pyuria, and pyuria and subjective symptoms, followed by bacteriuria and subjective symptoms, in this order. When taking it into consideration that bacteria multiply in bladder urine, which elicits a local defense response representing the appearance of pyuria, resulting finally in subjective symptoms, the results described above are valid.
Killing effects of extracts from 12 kinds of foods and ethanol on Anisakis larvae were examined to find prophylaxis. Saline extracts from freeze-dried Perilla frutescense viridis Makino (5% w/v), Zingiber officinale (5%), Wasabia japonica (5%), Allium sativum (5%), Z. officinale (2.5%), W. japonica (2.5%), and ethanol (8% v/v) were effective to stop the motion of worms (without movement for 1 min even though stimulated by tweezers) with mean durations of 3.1 hr, 3.2 hr, 5.6 hr, 10.8 hr, 11.6 hr, 17.6 hr and 2.0 hr, respectively. Larvae contacted with these extracts for 24 hr lost mobility (observations for more than 4-5 hr with stimulations) completely. Further dilutions of these extracts or 5% extracts (w/v) from Allium fistulosum, Petroselinum sativum, Raphanus sativus, Brassica oleracea, Spinacia oleracea, Laminaria angustata, Capsicum annuum, and Thea sinensis, had little effects. Killing effects of well-known components of P. frutescens and Z. officinale were examined, too. Minimum doses of -shogaol, -gingerol, perillaldehyde and perillyl alcohol for complete killing of larvae were 62.5, ug/ml, 250, ug/ml, 125 pg/ml and 250 dug/ml, respectively. Thiabendazole (10 mg/ml) had no killing effect.
This study was performed to develop an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of measles antibodies. A highly purified virus antigen was prepared from Vero cells infected with measles virus by density gradient ultracentrifugation. The control antigen was prepared from uninfected Vero cells as well. Since antibodies to Vero cells, non-Forssman antibodies, were found in some sera of young age group, it was essential to absorb the test sera with Vero-cell antigen before the ELISA test. A cut-off level (0.18) was estimated after absorption of 157 sera with Vero-cell antigen. By making use of this cut-off level, a highly sensitive and specific ELISA test was established. A conversion table was prepared for the calculation of measles ELISA antibody titer defined as reciprocal of the highest serum dilution which showed a positive score from the measured absorbance of a single serum dilution of 1: 200. By this method, ELISA antibody titers of many samples can be recorded at once. After a measles AIK-C vaccine virus infection, infants developed ELISA antibodies earlier than HI and neutralizing (NT) antibodies. Measles ELISA antibodies persisted for as long as NT antibodies after natural measles infection.
Efficacy, safety and usefulness of CS-807, a new oral cephem, in the treatment of chronic respiratory tract infection, were evaluated by the double blind comparative method using cefaclor (CCL) as a reference drug. Patients were treated by oral administration of either 200 mg of CS-807 twice a day or 500 mg of CCL three times a day for 14 days. The following results were obtained: 1) Out of a total of 199 patients, 170 patients(84 with CS-807: 86 with CCL) were used for comparative evaluation of clinical efficacy. As for the background of patients, patients in the CCL group were significantly more severe in the severity of infection than those in the CS-807 group. 2) The clinical efficacy rate judged by committee members was 75.0%(63/84) for the CS-807 group and 76.7%(66/86) for the CCL group, respectively. The rate judged by doctors in charge was 75.6%(62/82) and 70.9%(61/86), respectively. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in both analyses. The efficacy rate of CS-807 was significantly higher in the moderate severity of infection and in monomicrobial infection by H. influenzae than that of CCL. 3) As for the bacteriological effect, the eradication rate was 81.0%(34/42) for the CS-807 group and 60.0%(18/30) for the CCL group, respectively and there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups.When the bacteriological effect was analysed by causative organisms, the eradication rate of CS-807(95.0%, 19/20) in the infection by H. influenzae was significantly higher than that of CCL(50.0%, 8/16). 4) The incidence of side effects was 4.3%(4/93) for the CS-807 for the CS-807 group and 4.2%(4/96) for the CCL group, respectively. The incidence of abnormalities in laboratory findings was noted in 11 of 79 cases(13.9%) for the CS-807 group and 21 of 80 cases(26.3%) for the CCL group. In both analyses, these were no significant differences between the two groups. 5) The utility rate judged by committee members was 74.1%(63/85) for the CS-807 group and 76.7%(66/86) for the CCL group, respectively. The rate by doctors in charge was 73.2%(60/85) and 69.8%(60/86), respectively. There were no differences between the two treatment groups in both analyses. As described above, the clinical efficacy of CS-807 at a daily dose of 400 mg was superior to that of CCL at a daily dose of 1500 mg in the moderate infection and the infection by H. influenzae. Any significant difference and was not found between the two groups in their safety. From these results, it is concluded that CS-807 is a oral antibiotics with high usefulness in the treatment of chronic respiratory tract infection.
Spotted fever is a rhicketsial infection with Tsutsugamushi like symptom, characterized by high fever and an erythematous rash. In Japan, the first case was reported in 1984. And since then, about thirty more cases have been reported, all from KYUSYU and the east coast of SHIKOKU. Here, we report the first case of Spotted fever in CHIBA prefecture which is epidemiological importance. It is also interesting that the first symptom was loss of consciousness (Central Nervous System). In this report, we will include the clinical course of this case along with Electroencephalogram and Cerebrospinal fluid findings.
The fifth human case of infection with Diplogonoporus grandis from Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan was reported in this paper. The patient is a 58-year-old male farmer. He was admitted to Odawara City Hospital on May 12, 1987, with complaints of frequent diarrhea and discharge of pieces of a tapeworm. A pair of genital organs were observed in each segment of the pieces. On the basis of these observations the pieces were identified as those of the tapeworm belonging to the genus Diplogonoporus. He was treated with bithionol (24mg/kg) and expelled 8 m 15 cm strobila with a scolex. The morphological features of strobila and scolex were identified as those of Diplogonoporus grandis, as is shown in Figure 3, 4 and 5. This farmer had eaten raw marine-fishes such as bonito and tuna, for the past year. Accordingly, we suspected bonito was the source of infection in this case. One month after treatment, we could not find any eggs of tapeworm in the stool, so we judged this patient already cured.
It is well recognized that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease characterized with the neoplastic proliferation of mature-appearing small lymphocytes, and the prognosis of the disease appears to be conserved compared with acute leukemias. In this report, we described a patient with CLL complicated by rapidly progressing pulmonary infiltrates and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was diagnosed at autopsy. In this case, flow cytometric analysis disclosed that the surface antigen of small lymphocytes was B1+, T1+, indicating the typical phenotype of the B cell-CLL. Since the patient was treated with a combination of anti-neoplastic agents, marked suppression in humoral as well as cellular immunity was observed at admission to this hospital. Abrupt onset of dyspnea and hypoxia along with the relatively less severe chest X-ray findings made us consider the possibility of carinii pneumonia. Despite Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim treatment, respiratory failure was rapidly aggravated. At autopsy, numerous black bodies by Gricott staining in the lung specimen suggested carinii pneumonia. We discussed the immunodeficient status in this patient leading to the developement of carinii pneumonia and the possible value of the prophylactic usage of such drugs against the development of the pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.