To investigate a non-RI test which is equivalent to the reverse transcriptase inhibiting antibody test, a reverse transcriptase inhibiting antibody was compared to the absolute number of CD-4 or CD-8 cells or CD-4/-8 ratio and also to photodensitometric analysis for western blotting. There is no correlation of the reverse transcriptase with any test for cell numbers and their ratio. In photodensitometry, relative units of and-p65 and anti-p51 were compared with reverse transcriptase inhibiting antibody. The reverse transcriptase inhibiting antibody showed a higher correlation to the relative unit of p65 antibodies than that of p51 antibodies. The photodensitometric analysis of western blotting for a serum test may be a possible method to find a prognostic marker in HIV-1 infection.
Dry syrup of Rokitamycin (RKM? DS), a new macrolide antibiotic with 16-membered ring developed by Toyo Jozo Co., Ltd., was used on cases of upper deep cervical lymphadenitis (UDCL) and of otitis media with exudatives (OME) likely caused by chlamydia infections, and its clinical effects were investigated. 1) In four cases of UDCL (C. psittaci infections), daily doses of 20.0-28.6 mg/kg were administered for 10-42 consecutive days and good efficacies were observed with two cases of excellent results and two cases of good results. 2) In one case of OME (C. trachomatis infection) a daily dose of 30.0 mg/kg was administered for 15 consecutive days and good effectiveness was observed. 3) No side effect was observed in any of the cases. From the above results, it became clear that RKM·EDS could effectively used as a therapeutic agent for UDCL and OME in children.
We studied the annual clearance rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the annual seroconversion rates of HBsAg (HBs seroconversion rates), and the correlation between HBsAg clearance and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) superinfection in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers in Japan. Out of 1, 029 HBV carriers followed for more than 36 months, 56 cases were cleared of HBsAg from the sera, and 24 of these cases developed hepatitis B surface antibody. The annual clearance rate of HBsAg was 0.94% and the annual HBs seroconversion rate was 0.27%. These rates increased with aging, especially above 30 years of age. Antibody to HDV was detected in three cases with increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity preceding HBsAg clearance. These data indicate that HDV superinfection may play a role in induction of the HBsAg clearance in HBV carriers in Japan.
Rickettsia tsutsugamushi (Rt) isolated from patients with tsutsugamushi fever were examined for their antigenicity. This was done by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) with guinea pig antisera agaisnt three standard strains (Karp, Kato and Gilliam) and two local strains (Kawasaki and Kuroki) isolated in 1981, and with mouse monoclonal antibodies against the three standard strains. In the meantime, antibodies in sera from 317 out of 442 patients registered during 1985 to 1988 were titrated by IIF with those five Rt strains. 1) Local isolates, Kawasaki and Kuroki strains, reacted most effectively with the homologous antiserum, respectively, showing four fold lower IIF titers against the heterologous antisera. 2) Kawasaki strain reacted with none of the monoclonal antibodies, whereas Kuroki strain showed a slight reaction with anti-Karp and anti-Kato, but not anti-Gilliam, monoclonal antibodies. 3) Seventeen out of 27 strains isolated in 1985 resembled the Kawasaki strain in their reaction patterns with the antisera and monoclonal antibodies, and the other 10 strains showed reactivity similar to the Kuroki strain. 4) Sera of 233 (74%) out of 317 patients showed the highest antibody titers against the Kawasaki strain and 69 (22%) of 317 against the Kuroki strain. It is thus evident that Kawasaki and Kuroki strains are antigenically different from the standard strains, and Kawasaki and Kuroki strains also differ from each other. It is suggested that two antigenic types (Kawasaki and Kuroki) of Rt were distributed in Miyazaki Prefecture, Rt of the Kawasaki type slightly dominates Rt of the Kuroki type, and recent tsutsugamushi fever has been caused by either one or the other type of Rt.
Our previous study showed the occurrence of Branhamella catarrhalis (B. catarrhalis) pulmonary infections which varies seasonally. To investigate the role of normal throat microflora in this seasonal variation of the occurrence of B. catarrhalis infection, seventy seven throat cultures were done in 45 patients with chronic pulmonary diseases from January to December in 1985. The isolation rate of Corynebacterium species as normal microflora was relatively higher in summer than in winter. Therefore in vitro competitive adherence to human epithelial cells between Corynebactrium pseudodiphtheriticum (C. pseudodiphtheriticum) and B. catarrhalis was done to examine bacterial interference. Preincubation or simultaneous incubation of C. pseudodiphtheriticum reduced the number of B. catarrhalis adherent to epitherial cells (p<0.02). The mean number of adherent C. pseudodiphtheriticum (average; 13.86) was higher than that (average; 1.22) of adherent B. catarrhalis. There was no antagonism in the growth on blood agar between C. pseudodiphtheriticum and B. catarrhalis. These findings suggest Corynebacterium species as normal thorat microflora may interfere the adherence of B. catarrhalis to human epithelial cells and may protect against colonization and infection with B. catarrhalis. Bacterial interference of Corynebacterium species may be associated with the low occurrence of B. catarrhalis pulmonary infections in summer.
It has been reported that the Pasteurella multocida does not grow on the BTB agar. Therefore, this medium has been used as selective and differential medium for Pasteurella multocida. However, we have experienced that some of the Pasteurella multocida from the patient's materials grew on the BTB agar. Here, we will report on the studies of the growth of the Pasteurella multocida strain on the BTB agar. Ten strains of Pasteurella multocida from humans and animals were used as the test strains. Those were adjusted to McFarland No.5 by the sterilized physiological saline and inoculated on the agars. We compared commercially prepared BTB agars from 3 companies and BTB agars prepared by ourself from dehydrated culture medium. Blood, Chocolate, Nutrient and MacConkey agar were also used in this study. As for the growth of the Pasteurella multocida, we checked the pH of each agar and the temperature during the cultivation. The results are as follows: 1) Pasteurella multocida was confirmed to grow on all of the BTB agar. 2) Pasteurella multocida grew most heavily at 37°C and pH of 7.4 to 8.2. 3) The difference of the growth on each agar was considered to be the difference of the pH and nutritional condition of the agar.
In order to study the correlation between chronic prostatitis and C. trachomatis, IgA and IgG titers for C. trachomatis in serum and prostatic secretion were measured using the indirect immunoperoxidase assay (Ipazyme Chlamydia). 1) Positive rate of IgA and IgG titers in serum and prostatic secretion was higher in cases of chronic prostatitis than that in cases of suspected chronic prostatitis or the normal male group. 2) In cases of chronic prostatitis, IgA titers showed a tendency to be high in prostatic secretion, and IgG titers showed the same tendency in serum. This result was considered C. trachomatis infection was appeared local immunization in prostate. 3) After treatments with DOXY for cases of positive IgA titers in prostatic secretion, IgA titers of those cases were decreased and inflamations of prostate were cured. 4) The positive rate of IgA and IgG titers in serum was higher in wives with IgA positive cases than in those with the IgA negative. Those results suggested that chronic porstatitis was correlated by C. trachomatis.
Under low temperature conditions, the effects of survival and growth of non-01 Vibrio cholerae were studied in laboratory microscosms. As the environmental factors, various concentrations of NaCl solution and that of mono-and bivalent cation added nutrient of polypepton were used under several temperatutes. The results of these experiments suggested an extended survival of non-01 V. cholerae at low temperature. When a range of NaCl concentration in microcosms water was between 0.4% and 2.0% with absent of nutrient, the survival of this organism was good under the temperature from 10°C to 20°C. With added nutrient, when about 10 mM bivalent cation and over 0.3% NaCl co-existed, this strain was able to grow at 10°C, and showed good survival. This finding suggested the possibility of survival under 10°C.
We investigated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on mice with ascending pyelonephritis induced by Pseudomonas aeruginasa (G-group). This experimental model was established by a two course administration of cyclophosphamide, so that it kept the mice in a neutropenic status (around 2000 white blood cells/mm3) from the time of infection to the time of sacrifice. The cyclophosphamide-treated group increased their susceptibility more than the control group. In the cyclophosphamide-treated group, the prophylactic administration of G-CSF (2μg/day/mouse) yielded a lower incidence of infection and of infection-induced motality than that of saline alone. However, the therapeutic administration of G-CSF did not produce significant decreases of these rates, suggesting that this type of administration had no effect on infection. At the time of sacrifice, the prophylactic administration of G-CSF increased the number of neutrophils, while at the time of induced infection, no increase of neutrophils was found. G-CSF therapeutic administraiton was not able to increase neutrophils during the experiment. An investigation of the bactericial capacity of peritoneal exudating neutrophils revealed that G-CSF prophylactic administration accelerated its capacity, although cyclophosphamide alone did not. These results suggest that G-CSF has a prophylactic effect on bacterial infeciton in neutropenic mice, and that this effect, in part, depends upon both the increase of neutrophils and the acceleration of bactericidal capacity produced by G-CSF.
We have recently experienced a case of Vibrio vulnificus septicemia which occurred in a patient with hepatic cirrhosis, and as we were able to give early antibiotic treatment, the patient survived. We would like to report this case here together with another case experienced 2 years ago. Case 1 was a 58-year-old male who was attending our hospital as an outpatient for hepatic cirrhosis. At 5.30 pm on August 8, 1987, he consumed abalone and giant clam and at 9 pm complained of high fever with shaking chills. He was admitted to our department as an emergency case. Cefoperazone was administered resulting in a decline of fever on the following day.During the course of treatment he fell transiently into pre-DIC, but due mainly to the administration of antibiotics his condition was subsided. Case 2 was a 53-year-old male who was under medical care in our hospital for grave hepatic cirrhosis. On October 11, 1985, he consumed sushi and two days later suffered chills and pyrexia. A blood culture revealed Vibrio valnificus. His condition improved transiently with administration of Cefazolin, but oliguria, hypotension and ascites occurred subsequently, and finally the patient died on the 22nd day.
A 71-year-old man was admitted with a diagnosis of amoebic dysentery. He received a tonsillectomy 2 years prior to admission because of squamous cell carcinoma and had been treated with 5-FU. Laboratory examination showed T-lymphocytopenia and the T4/T8 ratio was markedly reduced. He experienced amoebic dysentery during World War II some 40 years ago, thus, this case report suggested that amoebiasis relapsed by depressed cellular immunity and was calculated as one of the opportunistic infections.
Abscess formation by Salmonella typhi is an unusual manifestation. A woman aged 62 suffered from recurrent abscess in the anterior thorax for 35 years, which was released by spontaneous pus drainage each time. Pus cultures grew S. typhi, and the CT scan revealed a large abscess enclosing the sternum and left ribs.