We examined whether gargling with black tea prevents influenza infection. Tests were carried out during a five month period (October 1992 to March 1993). The control group that followed their normal daily routine, whereas the test group that gargled with 0.5 w/v% black tea extract twice daily (at 8 a.m. and 5 p.m.). Influenza viruses were isolated from influenza patients and an antigen analysis was carried out. As a result, two strains of influenza A viruses (H3N2) and ten strains of B virus were detected. An HI test was done using paired sera of the control group and the test group. The HI titers raised a four fold or greater in 48.8%(61/125) in the control group and 35.1%(35/134) in the test group. There was a significant difference (p <0.05) between the control and test groups. These results indicate that black tea extract is effective as a prophylactic agent against influenza infection.
A total of 21, 609 faecal specimens obtained from patients with diarrhea mainly in Kanto area between June and September 1996 were investigated to identify the causative pathogens for diarrhea. One-hundred fifty-seven strains of Escherichia coli of 29 different O-serotypes were isolated as the causative pathogens, which were previously reconginized to induce severe abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Of these, 114 strains, in which the possibility of enterohemorrhagic E. coli due to their O-serotypes was predicted, were examined for the producibility of Vero toxins. Twenty-six (76.5%) of the 34 strains of E. coli O157 produced the Vero toxins, and other 8 strains were the non-producers. Twenty of the 26 producers produced both VT1 and VT2, whereas the other 6 strains produced VT2 only. Furthermore, 4 strains of E. coli O26, and 1 strain each of E. coli O125 and O126 produced Vero toxins. Thirty-two of the 114 strains, isolated from the patients with diarrhea and selected as the enterohemorrhagic E. coli according to the specific O-serotypes, were actually confirmed produce Vero toxins. Thirty-four strains of E. coli O157 tested were susceptible to all antibiotics such as ampicil-lin, doxycylin, levofloxacin, fosfomycin, chloramphenicol and polymyxin B, and no strains resistant to levofloxacin, polymyxin B and fosfomycin were found.
Sepsis is one of the most serious infections occuring in patients with lung cancer. Thus, we determined what is most predisposing factor in prognosis of sepsis in lung cancer patients; the type of causative bacteria, neutropenia or host nutritional status. A total of 27 lung cancer patients with sepsis, which consisted of 23 males and 4 females (mean age 70.7 ± 6.6), were included in this study. The study was conducted from 1991 to 1995. All subjects were classified into the survival group and the dead group. Staphylococcus aureus or Esherichia coli most frequently isolated from the blood of the patients in the survival group, while either E. coli alone or multiple organisms were predominant in the dead group. Neutropenia did not affect the outcome of sepsis in lung cancer patients. In contrast nutritional status, as determined by serum albumin levels, was closely related to the mortality in septic lung cancer patients. These results predict that the prognosis of sepsis is dependent on nutritional status of lung cancer patients.
We have studied the clinical significance of Aspergillus fumigatus r detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosing aspergillosis. For this purpose, a specific and sensitive PCR assay was developed to amplify the 26S r/intergenic spacer region of A. fumigatus. Control experiments showed that the set of primers used was capable of amplifying A. fumigatus D specifically and that the D amount of detection limit was 1 pg. Eighteen samples from 13 patients with aspergillosis and 36 samples from 24 patients without aspergillosis were tested by means of PCR, culture, latex agglutination test for galactomannan antigen and double gel diffusion assay for precipitation of antibodies to A. fumigatus. PCR showed positive test in 8 among 13 patients with pulmonary aspergillosis. On the other hand, culture of samples detected A. fumigatus in 6 patients. Galactomannan antigen and antibodies specific to A. fumigatus were positive in 2 and 6 patients respectively. These results indicated that PCR is the most sensitive among these 4 methods. Five patients showed negative PCR test despite of having pulmonary aspergillosis. Two of these patients were proved to have aspergillosis caused by A. flavus and A. niger. On the other hand, galactomannan antigen and A. fumigatus antibody were positive in one and 2 patients, respectively. PCR was positive in 2 out of 24 patients diagnosed as not having aspergillosis: one patient had diagnosis of acute bronchitis, but she showed positive culture of A. fumigatus. The other patient had diagnosis of lobar pneumonia, because any pathogens were not detected before PCRassay. The PCR assay we developed is a useful method for diagnosing aspergillosis caused by A. fumigatus as compared with other conventional methods.
To characterize the clinical features of childhood tuberculosis, we analyzed the symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings of the 89 children with tuberculosis admitted to the Yokohama City University Hospital from 1975 to 1994. Compared with the numbers of patients admitted from 1975 to 1979, those of patients of the past 5 years (from 1990 to 1994) were reduced by half. Of the 89 subjects, 56.2% were below 3 years of age and 24.7% were under 1 year of age. 51.7% had primary complex and 20.2% had serious tuberculosis (tuberculous meningitis 14.6%, miliary tuberculosis 3.4%, and bone and joint tuberculosis 2.2%). Tuberculous children below 3 years of age consisted of primary complex (60.0%) and serious tuberculosis (32.0%). The majority (86.0%) of tuberculous children below 3 years of age had not received BCG vaccination. In 55 (61.8%) of 89 subjects, the sources of tuberculosis were clarified. Of these subjects, 83.6% were infected in the family. The rate of BCG inocluation tended to decrease with decreasing age, especially that of children below 3 years of age was 14.0%. Of the 89 subjects, only 16.9% proved to be smearpositive. Taken together, in order to eliminate tuberculous children below 3 years of age, the following is necessary;(1) BCG inoculation in early infancy, (2) early diagnosis of index cases with adult tuberculosis, and (3) prompt and appropriate family contact examination.
We applied the Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for laboratory diagnosis of influenza virus infection. We used three primer sets for detection of influenza virus A (AH1, AH3) and B. The primer sets for each type (AH1, AH3, B) was able to detect specifically each type of influenza. We measured the sensitivity for detection of vaccine strains. The PCR method was able to detect 0.9 PFU/assey of AH1 type, 1.0 PFU/assey of AH3 type and 1.8 PFU/assey of B type. Out of 46 isolation negative but antibody positive cases, 38 cases were positive for PCR (82.6%). This method is sensitive and useful for rapid diagnosis of influenza virus infection.
To investigate the clinical implication of peak body temperature, peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC) count, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level in febrile symptoms among geriatric hospitalized patients, they were analyzed in 968 febrile episodes obtained from 433 hospitalized patients in the referred hospital. Episodes of one day duration were most frequent (41.6%). WBC count was elevated over 8000/μl in 475 episodes (49.1%) and CRP exceeded 1.0 mg/dl in 770 episodes (79.5%). Frequency of WBC elevation decreased and frequency of CRP elevation increased according to the time course. The mean value of CRP increased significantly according to the time course. The frequency of WBC count increase and CRP elevation and their averages correlated to the peak body temperature. The peak body temperature displayed the most striking correlation to the length of febrile episodes among three clinical indicators, peak body temperature, WBC count, and CRP level. These results indicate that the elevation of WBC count and/or CRP level is frequent in geriatric patients with febrile symptoms. Peak body temperature may serve as a clinical indicator of the severy of the febrile disease occurring in geriatric patients.
A chemical component has been purified from Acholeplasma laidlawii which binds to tissue culture cells, MOLT-4, Hut-78, but not MT-4 and Jurkat. The glycolipid in the membranes of A. laidlawii was extracted by Bligh-Dyer method. Further purification of chloroform phase of Bligh-Dyer method was performed by silicagel column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Finally, the active component was assigned to be diglucosyl diacylglyceride by using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C). Furthermore, diglucosyl diacylglyceride (s) with C14, and C16 were synthesized, by the method of Boom. Both native and synthesized diacylglycerides bind to MOLT-4 and Hut-78 cells. The binding activity of these substances to cells was inhibited by preincubation of diglucosyl diacylglycerides on the cover glass with clathrin. These results suggest that the binding site of diglucosyl diacylglycerides on cells was clathrin. It is necessary to clarify the biological activities of diglucosyl diacylglycerides in viral infections and transmission of lipoprotein and the how mechanism of envelopment of the virus into the cell.
A case of the tuberculous abscess in the abdominal wall is reported. A 84-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with evaluation of oft tumor at the left lower abdomen. She has a mass in the abdominal wall measuring 4 cm in diameter, and abscess in the abdominal wall was detected by ultrasonogram and CT. The confirmed diagnosis of abdominal wall tuberculosis was made by means of bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR method) of the aspirated fluid from a mass. Multiple calcified lesions on the abdominal X-ray were seen, which were thought to past history of tuberculous peritonitis. Antituberculosis therapy of three-drug regimens was not effective. Four month later, resection of the abscess was then performed. Adhesion was demonstrated between greater omentum and peritoneum, therefore the abscess in the abdominal wall was considered to arise and advance directly from the abdominal cavity.