Abortion is at the heart of “sexual politics” including a serious struggle between feminists and consevative anti-abortionists. The aim of this paper is to reconsider the significance and limitations of feminists' vindication of women's right to abortion and reproductive freedom argumentation. After surveying abortion's situation generally and defining the meaning of reproductive freedom, the paper discusses the relation of women's freedom and selective abortion and concludes that women's rights and handicapped's rights are not contradictive.
Lingvo, precipe ties politika funkcio, estis kaj estas preterlasita punkto de Sociologio. Tiu eseo temas kial sociologaro apenau atentis kaj atentas la chefa laboroj de lingvscienco, kaj kial sociologaro devas atenti ilin kiel la objektoj por la sociologio de scio. (en Esperanto) (Language, particularly its political function, was and is a blind point of sociology. This essay's themes are why sociologists scarcely paid and pay attention to the main achievements of linguistic science and why sociologists should pay attention to them as the objects for the sociology of knowledge.)
There has been continuous increase in size of ‘new middle class’ in almost all the advanced capitalist societies through this century. However, Marxist class theory cannot explain this increase satisfactorily even now. This article attempts to study on the relation between the size of this class and the profit amount of capital, based on the concept submitted in another article before. To attain this end, we examine and analyze both economic conditions separately on which individual capital can increase its profit amount and on which whole capital in the society can.
This paper is intend to survey the relation between sociology and communications and to present may own opinion about communication theory. First I'll describe some communication theories focussed on conveyance of meanings. Next I'll claim that sociology needs generative process of meanings. Finally I try to link “agents” with “structure” using the concepts of linguistic terms. It is important for sociologists to pay attention to communication theories because they become cover main fields of sociology more than before.
As Durkheim said, Pragmatism was a different style of thought from European rationalist tradition. William James questioned the basic premises of Cartesian subject. His major innovation was to regard not only the “external world” but also the “self” as object. Cooley realized that one's self cannot be understood without reference to his interpretation of how others see him. This view was formulated in his famous conception of the “looking-glass self”. Mead reinterpreted Cooley's theory of self along the lines of the pragmatic functionalism of Dewey and social behaviorism. How one can see himself as others see him? For Cooley, it was possible through “imagination” pepople have one another, for Mead, by “significant symbol”.
In this paper we try to consider how Weber's sociological fundamental categories define each other. For this purpose we have to clarify the meanings of some differences between “About Some Categories of Understanding Sociology” and “The Fundamental Concepts of Sociology”. Some matters of importance exist in some relationships between ‘compulsory association’ and ‘voluntary agreement’, ‘value-rationality’ and ‘associative relationship’, ‘(mutual) understanding’ and ‘end-rationality’, etc. Through solving these problems we will be able to comprehend his sociological thought more systematically.
The concept of “post-materialistic” values has been, either positively or negatively, adopted by scholars who study “new social movements”. Undoubtedly, this implies that the concept has become an essential vehicle to analyze the sense of values and attitude in new social movements. The primary object of this paper is to summarize how this concept, as a conceptual instrument, has made a great impact on the process of analyzing social movements and “new politics”. But I disagree to apply the concept, as Ingelhart's definition remainds intact, to comprehend the meaning of new social movements. In this paper I wish to propose the new interpretation of “post-materialistic” value while removing a nagative influence of the Haslovian linear theory on Ingelhart's concept.
Problems of death were once never separated from the war (World War II). And it seems that after the end of war people have kept some silence about death. But nowadays death has become once again one of the most crucial issues and the stage is now medicine rather than war. Faced with the problems such as brain-death, organ transplantation and dignity of death, people are coming back to the question ‘What is death?’ Responding to this situation of today, this paper intends to describe the ongoing arguments about death and at the same time to indicate what is missed or not discussed concerning death.
This paper aims to clarify the signification of “meaning” in relation to the “life-world, ” which is propounded by Husserl. This concept, the life-world, has brought a new phase to phenomenology in the direction to overcome subjectivism. Schutz is one of the phenomenologists who developed their studies by utilizing this concept. Both Husserl and Schutz consider meaning to reside in the life-world. However, the life-world is perceptual for Husserl, while it is social for Schutz. Schutz position comes close to Gadmer's hermeneutics, which is also a development of phenomenology, and to Wittgenstein's linguistic philosophy. Comparing these perspectives, this paper shows that meaning is not subjective but social and that the world comprises human social action.
A questionnaire survey and analysis was conducted for 133 women's college students to clarify the current Japanese young generation's acceptability towards foreign people. The Social Distance Scale was made and used In the survey. As a result, young Japanese are willing to accept foreigners according to their social situation (e.g. teacher-student relationship) or their interest in a progressive society, and according not to nationality, race and physical appearance. However, those who tend to show their conservativeness still remain pro-Western.
The nationalism in A. Dvorak's music has been already pointed out in the music history. This paper clarifies the social background of his nationalism and its meaning in the Habsburg Empire. In order to resolve the problem, I propose to conceptualize his works in the 1870s and 1880s as his middle works and consider the national theater movement of that time. The consideration will contribute to the study of the relation between music and the society.
Diffusion is an important concept in the individualistic social theory. Because, in this theory, social change is recognized as frequency transition of action strategies of individuals, and frequency transition is mediated by diffusson. Diffusion could happen among individuals, groups, and societies; we analyse establishment of social security system as a diffusion process of single action strategy among societies. Five social security services are analysed with regression analysis of logistic function. As a result, two services are proved to be in diffusion processes. To advance the study of diffusion process, frequency transition of plural action strategies in a game situation must be done.