“Taisho-Seihen”: The Resignation of the Katsura Cabinet in 1913 was caused by the mass movement of urban dwellers especially in Tokyo. Mobs stormed the Diet and many newspaper offices which had vindicated the cabinet. They also burnt away many streetcars and police boxes as occurred in “Hibiya riot” in 1905. In this paper, contrary to the traditional perspective of historians, I will not appreciate the democratical or class maturity of urban dwellers but instead find out the differentiation in their collective mentality, analysing their action styles in the disturbance, connected with some effects of the mass media in which they had been involved.
We will consider the social damage, especially discrimination, which Niigata Minamata Disease decisively reinforced. There are many causes of discrimination, but this paper focuses on how institutions and standards regulate the conditions of discrimination in the community. Here, we will deal with the case of the town of Yasuda, along side the Agano River, and discussing the serious problems which institutions and standards cause to the people of the town.
This paper examines neighborhood activities after the dissolution of the chonaikai (neighborhood association) under the occupation administration. The chonaikai was regarded as a perversive base of imperial governance especially during the Second World War. Although the chonaikai was prohibited, alternative groups were organized in the name of cultural associations, youth clubs and the like. These groups were formed to meet people's needs, interests and sentiments concerned with every day life. The neighborhoods that made up each chonaikai reflected the basic community structure and how it was arranged, especially in the Shitamachi (downtown) situation of city life.
Traditionally, community activities have been thougt of either in terms of the community disorganization theory or the community organization theory. But, in fact, some community activities have the function of organization, while others that of disorganization. Therefore, a sociological approach which considers the functions of both organization and disorganization of rural communities must be formed. In this ariticle, we attempt to constitute a new approach to community activities by the application of C.S. Fischer's subcultural theory of urbanism.
This paper examines the function of kin relationship, and in particular, where they relate to self-help activities progressing in poor urban areas of Manila. The residents utilize extended kin relationship in their daily lives, especially when involving themselves in the distribution of social resources which have been brought about through self-help activities. The people who use their kinship ties effectively can achieve a more favorable or higher social status for themselves and their kin groups. Therefore this paper also examines the social meaning of self-help activities as the origin of the societal heirarchy of power and rather than material wealth or resources.
As yet, in sociology, there is no rigid theory which is applied to various ethnic phenomena. We are seeking to formulate a theory of ethnic stratification in this paper. Compared with the theory of modernization, the theory of ethnic stratification should have two factors, multi-ways social change theory and particularism, including ethnicity. Our theory of ethnic stratification suggests three formations of social stratification: the two-strata model, the three-strata model and the dual-strata model. These formations are not created by the linkage between economy and universalism. Particularism of ethnicity has played and continues to play an important role in economic activity.
The Japanese religion Jodo-Shinshu Honpa Hongwanji was influential in the Japanese immigrant society in pre-war Hawaii. Its successful adaptation has often been attributed to the fact that the majority of the Japanese immigrants to Hawaii were from the areas Jodo-Shinshu was prevalent, or to the similarity of the principles of Jodo-Shinshu to that of Protestantism in traditional acculturation theory. In this paper, I will oppose these views by analyzing the development of Honpa Hongwanji in relation to its strategies formulated as responses to the strategies of individual immigrants and the needs of the Japanese immigrant society, while taking into the consideration the pressure of assimilation rooted in the host society.
The aim of this paper is to examine the view of women's life course, especially in their occupational careers. A survey was conducted on the relation between the survey objects' ideal image of a women's life course and that of their mother's, and their mother's work style. Data from 662 female university students in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture was collected. The findings are as follows: (1) The students grew up modeling themselves on their parents. (2) The student's ideal image of a women's life course is related to that of the parent's expectations of their daughter.
This paper approaches the idea of the Japanese “Workholic” as an idea centered on such mechanisms as “satisfaction”. An old criticism of the “Workholic” is based on the suppression of the individual by the company, i. e. a passive self which is strongly dependent on a company. However, the mechanism which brings about overwork voluntarily cannot be sufficiently explained by these approaches alone. Mbreover, there are problems whih emphasizing the importance of the individual. My approach pays attention to the self not in the schema of “individual vs company” but in that of the company as a field where the self is emerged. This approach aims to explain the mechanism that the pursuit of the satisfaction lead to alienation, anomie, overwork, and over-conformity.
A recent theme of industrial relations research is to mould a new model of ‘industrial relations systems’ and to relate this to overall social change which is caused by drastic changes of existing systems. In these attempts pluralism as a model of industrial relations and industrialism as a perspective of social change have been criticized. In contrast, this paper tries to offer a so-called neo-industrialist perspective. Neo-industrialism, which is endorsed by the revision of social change theory through the rise of world-system theory and articulation theory, offers the long-term convergence of industrial relations on an abstract theoretical level.
After World War II, western economies passed through an unprecedented era of peace, affluence, and economic stability. But with the decline of postwar economy in the late 60's, western society had to search for new paths leading to prosperity. Some expected western economies to shift from industrial societies to post industrial ones. Others asked if industrial economies might catch up with the changing market. The discussion was mainly focusing on the problem of how to overcome crisis. Finaly, western industrial countries gradually learned the advantage of the japanese management. But studying this management system in more detail, there are some issues that can't be solved. In this paper, I would like to point out these problems.
This paper aims to clarify the main determinant factors for the development in the employment of foreign white-collar employees in Japanese companies. The factors that are considered in the discussion below are the following: the labor-supply and the changes in law regulations and managerial conditions in specific companies which are hiring them. The analysis is based on the empirical data which has been gathered by a mail survey on 4400 companies in Japan, as well as official data from governmental reports. The empirical data was analyzed according to company size, and the kinds of jobs in which the foreigners were actually engaging.
In this paper, I intend to present a genealogy as to how crimes by mentally disordered people came to be recognized as a problem to be dealt with by special legal treatments, i. e. security measures. Though the security measures have never been realized in Japan, their introduction have been argued as early as the Taisho era. Considering the history of this argument, “mentally disordered criminals” were not considered a problem because they were dangerous. Rather, it was felt that they were made “dangerous and irresponsible” subjects due to the debate concerning the security measures themselves.
The purpose of this paper is to show the ways in which a familiar TV programme's identity is produced and maintained by organization of the TV news show's talk. This identity is recognized as such by the audience. This paper will focus on the case in which the programme identity is accomplished through the main news caster's identity which is produced mainly through his and others' talk. I will demonstrate one of the ways in which the main caster's identity is accomplished by organization of the talk. In so doing, I aim to offer an account that the TV programme has its own “discursive world”.
This paper examines interactional processes through which personal difficulties or problems as experienced are defined and through which claims are made. First, I look into the constructionist idea of “claims. ” Then, the interaction between claimants is viewed as a reality-definition contest. I examine and develop the description of reality-definition contests formerly given by Loseke (1987). With an illustration of a case of claims-making regarding “fufu-bessei” (an argument against changing a married woman's surname to that of her husband), I discuss and show how one's experience and definitions of problems are involved and invalidated in the mechanism of reality-definition contests.
This paper is intended to be a reconsideration of formulations in and as practical actions, following H. Garfinkel and H. Sacks. First, Garfinkel and Sacks' ethnomethodology and conversation analysis are placed in the philosophical trend after the linguistic turn, as they analyse use of natural language in actual settings, including even formulations which are usually considered to be scientific procedures. Second. we restate their distinction between formulations and “doing formulating” in and as ordinary practical actions. Next, this practice is demonstrated in a setting of psychiatric interviews. Finally, we see “doing formulating” is a naturally organized activity, rather than a metaphysical procedure.
There are many controversial arguments concerning to the “intersubjectivity” which guarantees universal, objective communication between one person and another. Manfred Frank presents a “consent or conflict” model to explain the positive and negative attitudes towards “intersubjectivity”. Here “conflict” means a definite opposition to any “consent” which disguises the actual confrontation or discommunication, or the reality of a ruler-subordinate relationship under a totalitarian peace. This paper tries to place Sartre on the “conflict” side. In my point of view, Sartre introduces “ethics” to oppose “consent”, thus providing a communication model without the enlightening “reason”.
Many social theorists have understood Giddens' social theory (structuration theory) to be an attempt to integrate traditional sociological theories, and they have not been able to clarify what his real interests are. In this essay, through reading Giddens' social theory as a social theory of ‘being and time, ’ I will point out Giddens' unique interests and try to re-appraise his structuration theory. His unique interests lie in trying ‘to introduce an ontological view’ that denies the dominant of an epistemological view in traditional social science, and ‘to emphasize reversible time’ that contrasts with linear time in traditional social science.
One of the essential problems in the history of Sociology is the question of where and how we can find its base as an empirical science. It is the purpose of this paper to elucidate the relationship between this question and the desire of sociologists for social integration. My assumption is that this problem can be solved by tracing Durkheim's evolution on sociological methodology. It is arguably one of the turning points in the future development of Sociology.