To keep long-term employment system or not is one of the serious problems under the recent social condition. We can find many studies to support long-term employment system in Japan. But many of them focus on the employees' firm-specific skills to deal with manufacturing standardized products efficiently at factory level. In the other hand, new social environment requires more value-added and differentiated products for japanese companies. At least in some types of products, such products are developed in integrated manners led by well-skilled core technical experts. Their firm-specific skills tend to be molded mainly through long-term experience and career development on the context of each company. In addition, some case-studies and statistic data tell us that such firm-specific skills would lead to organizational development of japanese companies.
This article examines why married career woman chooses becoming gentrifier, that is, living in redeveloped inner-city and what her choice to live there means by considering four case studies. These four cases reveal that the choice of married career woman's inner-city living functions in a way that she can have a commitment to her career even if she has major roles in household labor and childcare by decreasing commuting cost. We can understand the choice of gentrifier by married career woman is the strategy to maintain both her career and her marital life.
The Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake did great damage to inner-city area. A lot of discussions about the revival have been done in one year. In this paper, the revival in the inner-city area is considered especially focusing to the problem of aging society. The rapid aging in the inner-city community has become a social problem before the earthquake. Taking into account the influence of this situation on the damage of the earthquake, we have to consider this problem seriously aiming at the revival. Then this is an important problem common to the community formation not only in the struck area but also in a megalopolis of the future.
There are as many interpretations of the word “elderly” as there are people in a given society; yet the legal and welfare systems have yet to find an appropriate method for incorporating individuality into their functions. This paper critiques the concept of uniformly applying this sort of label; a social-interactive approach is used to attempt to develop a method of adjusting the “aging” label. By emphasizing the importance of life histories, as well as individual attitudes toward everyday life, six case studies will be briefly examined and fit into a previously-developed structural framework; it is hoped that the methods discussed in this paper can be used to more effectively understand the label and the concept of “aging” as it applies to individual members of society.
While calier ethnic studies have tended to take the Nation-State scheme of analysis as granted, cultural hybridization have been taking place without or crossing the framework. This article which is based upon participant observation and literature studies of Peruvian culture presents a case study of cultural hybridazation focusing upon Chinese cuisine in Peru. The aim of describing Peruvian-Chinese cuisine, not Chinese-Peruvian, as a main theme is to avoid ethnic categorization based on the Nation-State framework. Therefore, this study attcmps to make figuration of the hybridazation of Chinese cuisine in the Peruvian historical and social context.
This is one of the outcomes in a series of research projects on about 230 recordings of 119 calls. The data corpus is taken from the audio-taped emergency calls in an average size city in Japan. Our main point is synthesizing the studies on the concept-boundness of the social interaction and those of talk-in-interaction. By explicating some transcripts, we demonstrate that the “recipient design” is profoundly connected to co-selection of categories in terms of the MCD “family”, also to the turn by turn achievement of talk-in-interaction per se and even to using institutionalized response tokens like “hai” instead of “mm: : ”, latter of which sounds casual and makes non-institutionalized character.
This paper treats requests for ambulance from a corpus of emergency calls (119 calls), which were audio-recorded at a 119 dispatch center during the summer of 1994. In these calls, it is observable that when callers identify themselves, almost all of them use relational terms along with their names, e. g., “ (My name is) Yamada Hanako. wife. ” The question is not why they use such relational terms, but what they do as they use such terms. In order to treat this question, a device-what Harvey Sacks named Membership Catergorization Device-and its use will be considered.
In this article, an analysis of the discourse on the reading is evaluated as the sociological research on the printing medium in order to clarify the communication and the structure of the social group. The study of reading is classified into the research of the practice and the discourse. The former aims to reconstitute the practice through historical traces, and the latter to clarify the thinking style to guide the practice. Both are expected to be accumulated in Japan, where the study of reading is under way. An analysis of the discourse aims to clarify the way of seeing on the reading. Its attempt is also to anatomize a mechanism of the modern way of thinking.
Yanagita Kunio clarified that the word “Senzo” (Japanese traditional concept of ancestors) is used in two different meanings in his “Senzo-noHanashi” (1946). One meaning is the founder of “Ie” (the stem family), and the other is all of its deseased members. This paper points out that his study was based on his formula on the the relations between “Ie” and society. He regarded social mobilization in modern Japan as a serious problem to the eternal continuation of “Ie” and the society which is organized by “Ie” s. This problem let him pay attention to two meanings of “Senzo”. Through the reviewal of his studies, we will try to find a possibility to build a new hypothesis about the relation between social mobilization and ancestor worship in modern Japan.
Historically, rural study in Japan has been strongly influenced by the study of folklore. The sociologists who are interested in rural study have been trying to explain the structure of rural life and how the structure of rural society has been changing. After WWII, great deal of efforts have been made on the explanation of democratizations of Japanese society in the rural study of Japan. However, what seems to be lacking is to juxtapose it in the world history. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the framework of rural study in Japan. I intend to shift the present paradigm in rural sociology through comparison with the societal model of world-system theory and rural sociology. Consequently, this paper suggests an idea of the framework in new rural sociology.
In the contemporary sociology, Newly Industrializing Economies (NIEs) are one of the most relevant research subjects. This paper attempts to analyze the social basis in the formation of NIEs. First of all, both endogenous factors, which are class relations, state intervention and ideology, and exogenous factors, which are determined by the world-system, are specified by focusing on the formation process of indigenous capitals in NIEs and how NIEs have been able to develop in the world-system is explained. Secondly, the differences between east Asian and Latin American NIEs are clarified and to what extent NIEs are likely to be a model of other developing countries is discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of “meanings” in consumption, and deepen our understanding of “meanings” in consumption. First, we review the past studies on meanings in consumption. Next, we propose the classification of the concept into three groups: 1) sociocultural meanings of consumer goods, 2) personal meanings of consumer experiences, 3) sociocultural meanings of consumer experiences. Then we argue issues of each group and the relationship among three groups. Finally, we argue the significance of examining “meanings” in consumption referring to ideal value and economic value of human phenomena.
Regardless of others' understanding, we can have any ‘emotion’ or ‘feeling’ about others and also make use of them to construct some relationship between others, which could not be supported by people outside of the relationship. Of course, this relationship is not based on direct communication as someone says something and the other understands it. But it is an immediate and intimate one based on ‘emotions’ or ‘feelings’. In this paper, love is picked up to show the function of ‘emotions’ or ‘feelings’ and the structure of immediate relationships. In the course of investigation, Speech-Acts Theory by J.R. Searle and love as a generalized symbolic medium by N. Luhmann will be referred to.
For Althusser and Pêcheux, the ideology is a mechanism necessary to construction the social relations: it constructs the subjects through “interpellation”. And they argued that a sublect have performatively been produced in diverse ideological rituals. So, ideology is in nature “materiar” (not inner belief). Paradoxically this mechanism effaces, by the same token, its materiality (rituality, exteriority). Thus all activities, including langage, are experien oed as effects or expressions of the subject's interiority. By way of this mechanism of producing “evidence”, the reproduction of society is guaranteed. But the notion of ideology elaborated by Althusser and Pechêux is static. They had never been able to explain the break of reproduction. Why? This paper will give some clues to answer this question.
‘Constitutive Phenomenology of Natural Attitude’ would be one of the most appropriate terms for describing the ground of Alfred Schutz's Social Theory. The aim of this paper is to realize his social theory from the view of this Constitutive Phenomenology of Natural Attitude. Then, we at first contrast this attitude with Husserl's Phenomenology. In this part, we can find two different spheres of this attitude; mundane and transcendental. Second, the problem of how these two spheres are embodied in Schutz's social theory, is examined, and two lines of his social theory, description of typified world and analysis of typifying, are demonstrated. In the end of this paper, two concepts, called working and relevance system, are discussed as a principal insight of Schutz's social theory based on Constitutive Phenomenology of Natural Attitude.
This paper provides how the development of ethnomethodology has correspond to today's analytic philosophy or neo-pragmatism. First, we consider a sociologist's discussion that describes the connection between ethnomethodology and phenomenology/ordinary language and we find some points neglected in his discussion. Second, this paper introduces Rorty's argument on the linguistic turn and the correspondence of it to Garfinkel's approach. Finally, we discuss Garfinkel's respecification of order has some origins and parallel flow to analytic and philosophy neo-pragmatism. This result would reflect a vision for an alternative respecification of society.
The problem of respect (deference) is one of the central points in relation to the authority relationship. This Paper examines the discussion of Blau and Presthus with respect to the problem of respect. Both of them had two weak points in common. (1) They lacked the objective causal explaination of “Respect's occurence”. (2) They only discussed the authority relations within the limits of one organization. This paper tries to resolve these points at issue, and shows the possibility of the Respect's discussion in the authority relationship.
How are cooperative social orders constructed and maintained ? This is one of the most fundamental and at the same time practical questions of social sciences. This paper provides a theoretical framework for empirical research to answer at least some important parts of this question by elaborating the sociological conception: trust. It critically examines the various research traditions for trust, proposes basic schema of trusting relationships, explains features of cooperations based on trust and discusses macrosociological implication of trust.
“Legitimacy” is one of the most often discussed concepts in Sociology. But the cognitive meaning of the concept is far from clear. This paper, first, points out “Selectivity from Complexity”, that is, contingency of affairs, as one of the logical requisites for taking “legitimacy” of a certain affair into question. The lack of cognition of this “contingency (selectivity) ” disables us from problematizing “Legitimacy”. Next, sociological descriptions are classified into two types: on the one hand, the contingency is introduced from the viewpoint of the observed (actors in the world as sociological objects), on the other, from that of the observer (sociologists themselves). Berger & Luckmann's literature, one example of latter type, is very “cosmological”. Bourdieu's belongs to the latter type also, but it utilizes “class”-category, one of the ‘powerful’ format for differentiating the actors, so it looks more plausible.