This paper aims at the analysis of de-self-labeling process in social interactional processes on the assumption that social-labeling can be transformed into self-labeling, and that it is possible for a self-labeled person to break away from the self-labeling process. Self-labeling is an interactional process that can oppress the self-identity of a labeled person, so the de-self-labeling process for him is a reconstruction process of his self-identity. This paper considers two types of de-self-labeling processes that correspond to two types of self-labeling (α/β). This paper is an attempt to extend labeling theory using the key concept of de-self-labeling.
With the linguistic turn, many communication theorists have abandoned the code theory. But, in fact, they presuppose the existence of the level of the message(code) and implicitly divide communication between the level of the message(code) and the level of the meta-message (communication). Consequentry, they cannot explain the relation of the two levels and integrate them. On the other hand, psychoanalytic theory specifies that the level of the message is constituted in the space where the level of the meta-message functions and that the level of the meta-message is the trace of the level of the message.
This paper aims to answer the following question about so-called “private experiences”: in what way is “private experience” intelligible? In this paper, I will deal with “private experience” by focusing on events concerning “pain.” One might think that one's pain is something that only belongs to oneself However, it is incorrect to say that since “my pain” is recognized only by looking into my own mind, “my pain” is something that could fundamentally be concealed from other's knowledge. I would like to present an alternative view. The outline of my argument is as follows: first, I argue against models based on scepticism about the ability to understand others. Next, I demonstrate that conventional thinking about a person's pain only belonging to that person could be understood as an interactional achievement.
This essay advances a perspective that proposes to consider emotions as a form of knowledge that guides action. This perspective, drawing on a line of thought in cognitive science known as situationalism, suggests that plan prompts action only vaguely and that the signal function of emotion constitutes plan along with thought. It clarifies the reason people engage in the act of controlling their emotions-emotion management-while emotion is often experienced as something uncontrollable. It allows us to deal with emotion in terms of reflexivity, that is, the ability to monitor and interpret the meaning of action and its environment. Emotion knowledge is by no means transparent information on the part of an actor but is consequential to the course of action. Thus people try to control their often-unmalleable emotions.
This paper is an analysis of Reality in ‘image’. ‘Image’, here, means represe rated visual images of physical reality by optical instruments. There are tow purposes here: (1) To reveal intrinsic features of the ‘image’ itself, (2) To consider what kind of sense could be generated by stimulating our sensibility. As for procedure of the concrete analysis, the author first reveals the structure of the representation of ‘image’, based on semiological interpretation. Secondly, the author analyzes the features of ‘image’ and the structure of human sense of sight through a concept introduced by Benjamin, namely, the ‘optical unconscious’. Finally, the author explores the origins of our sense of reality through image.
The “discovery of aging” in the society of mass longevity requires to redefine the meaning and value of maturity. In other words, we need to grasp again the principle and pattern of human formation. The aim of this paper is to show the framework of an approach which examines the principle and pattern of human formation from the socio-historical context of mass longevity. This approach has another implication to be able to construct a perspective and method toward the context of “aging as a life process”.
The objective of this paper is to expose the situation of children who are brought to Japan from Brazil by their parents. The analysis is focused on educational factors and the formation of an ethnic identity (Nikkei-Brazilian) among these children, who are involuntarily included in an international labor migration. Of particular note here, is the fact that the parents are short-term foreign labor in Japan, a situation which has a strong influence in the decline of: the level of education for these children, and confidence in their identity leading to a lack of stability within the school and social environments of either country of habitation.
Recently the voting right for foreign residents has become a focal point of scholarly and policy debate in Japan. Though it is important to claim their rights, the voting right alone is not enough to assure political participation by foreign residents. The aim of this paper is to examine the possibilities of their political participation from below. We will first describe the development of Brazilian subculture focusing on ethnic enterprises and religious organizations. Then we consider whether these institutions can be the basis for citizen participation.
In light of the present circumstance wherein the tendency is to define constituents of a particular nation more in terms of ethnicity than by the civic principle, I have come to focus on disputes between various citizenship theories regarding the balance of rights and responsibility. Among them, I am particularly interested in pluralist-communitarian, groupist and pro-multiculturalism liberalist. I then conclude with a discussion of stigmata which affect group rights and the possibility of replacing national citizenship with a membership theory of collective identity.
This paper focuses on discussions surrounding so called “voluntary service”, the services toward caretakers in the field of medical service, social welfare, education and so on. Among the distinctive features of voluntary services are the various and dynamic activities which derive from changing ‘object made in relationship with other’. Traditional action theory in utilitarianism, however, on the assumption of a fixed and definite “object” is not sufficient to explain this dynamism of voluntary service. I begin by summarizing this action theory within sociology and go on to adapt it to voluntary services, thereby overcoming some of the original limitations on this theory. Finally, I review voluntary services with an attempt to examine the basic definitions and concepts.
Recently the studies of social movements have been concerned with the relation between movemnts and culture. In this paper, I utilize additional elements in the description of movements which take heed of two principles of communication operating in collective actions. The first is “Breaking away” which constructs a distinctive space playing a key role in establishing activist subcultures. The second principle is “Infiltration” by which activists spread their ideology to attract widespread support. In a case study, I describe the history of an informal network and the conflict process in which the network takes a leading role.
In any policy-making process, the aimed result inevitably generates associated or unintended consequences. These associated consequences quite often work contrary to the organizations goals. Taking SEIBI-SHINKANSEN (Hokuriku, Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kyushu and Nagasaki super expresses) as an example, I discuss the question, from the viewpoints of ‘pouvoir’ (M. Crozier) and ‘arena’, of how the associated consequences are generated in the policy-making process. I demonstrate in this paper that the problems derived from the policymaking process, and the agents who have strong pouvoir for problems are very foci around which relevant arenas are constituted. Finally I suggest two concepts of a closed system for finding problems and the totality of policy.
At the beginning of the Meiji era, the modern postal system was introduced to Japan. It was the preeminent historical event in the building of a nation and modernization of its society. The transportation/information system (‘Shukueki’ and ‘Sukegou’ systems) that the new Meiji government inherited from the Tokugawa shogunate government was dysfunctional; within every center (‘Tonyaba’) of regional organization, which had control led over its own transportation systems, was a state of anarchy and isolated regional powers. In this critical phase of the Meiji Restoration, through the establishment of a national postal network, the new Meiji government had succeeded in not only reintegrating core and peripheral regions into Meiji Japan, but also succeeded in organizing regional autocrats. Thus the modern postal system, as a social organizing technology, had played a decisive role in the development of the modern nation-state
We can find two types of interpretation on the emigration from Tashima Village. This article discusses these types as it relates to the social context. The first interpretation was related to the Local Improvement Campaign promulgated by the national Government in the Taisho era. The other interpretation was related to local customs, that is, the local people intended to interpret the experiences of their village through the use of their traditional resourses. This difference in interpretation resulted in the fact that Tashima Village was not entirely included in the policies of the national Government.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the cooperative idea emergent from within the Sangyokumiai-Movement. Specific focus will be on 1930's regional leadership in Ibaraki Prefecture. Sangyokumiai was a farmers cooperative, which was the direct ancestor of the agricultural cooperative system. It was pushed forward by farmers in 1930's in order to extricate themselves from the economic depression. First I will argue that the regional leadership in the Sangyokumiai-movement considered Sangyokumiai to be a social reform movement. Then I will show that, while understanding it as a social reform movement, farmers organized it throughout 1930's and laid the foundation for the contemporary agricultural cooperative association.
In this paper, the author describes the development of propaganda for Southeast Asia after the outbreak of the Pacific War, from the viewpoint of Japanese foreign propaganda policies. The focus here is on the, so-called, Newspapers Campaign in Occupation. The auther characterized Newspapers Campaign for Southeast Asia as one of the foreign propaganda policies in wartime Japan. The contradictions of Newspapers Campaign for Southeast Asia is all all of Japanese foreign propaganda.
The purpose of this article is to study the acceptance of Christianity in and through the use of cemeteries. The findings of this study are based upon survey research in Tohoku region and fieldwork at Shinobu church. Results show that most ministers regard a cemetary as one of the essential facilities of their churches, in spite of the fact that few make earnest use of it. Fieldwork at Shinobu suggests that it is difficult to transimit Christian faith and rituals over generations.
The sociologist, analyzing other people's ‘Seinsverbundenheit’, is not aware of his/hers own. This epistemic oversight continues to adversely effect orthodox sociological research and theorizing. Pierre Bourdieu, however, with epistemic reflexivity and critical analysis, makes his own sociological practice an object of the ‘theory of practice’. He regards his theory as method, and it is this approach which characterizes his work. I will examine the potentiality of sociological theory as method through the consideration of Bourdieu's practices toward a ‘theory of practice’.
Even while still in Germany, Karl Mannheim was famous for his work in the “Sociology of knowledge.” After he sought political asylum in the United Kingdom, he introduced psychology and policy science into his theoretical framework and analyzed characteristics of mass society. Meanwhile, he was changing his focus from “diagnosing society” to “planning a new society.” As a result, he created a “social planning” concept. This paper investigates how Mannheim developed his ideas of “social planning.” What attracts me most is his idea of “coordination of social technique.” Through analyzing his works, I would like to point out a common theoretical basis in Mannheim's Britain-era thinking.
Niklas Luhmann applied autopoietic systems theory to social systems theory by laying stress on ‘communication’ or ‘communicative events’ as a component of social systems. It is frequently said that such social systems are ‘operationally closed’ and ‘cognitively open’ at the same time. To explain why social systems should be defined ‘operationally closed’, I will ‘refer’ to Parsons' version of social systems theory that has been criticized as ‘oversocialized’. Then, I will use two keys to understand the operational closure of social systems and psychic systems. One is the distinction between ‘input type description’ and ‘closure type description’, the other is the ‘double closure of systems’ concept proposed by Heinz von Foerster.