Have immigration policies in various countries been subjected to sufficient comparative analysis from the perspective of citizenship? The answer is “No”. Due to “the challenge to the nation-state”, the debate on citizenship has focused on “formal” membership and has overemphasized human rights. However, the British experience suggests two points. First, a new perspective on citizenship is needed to analyse “substantive” membership. Second, the relationship between immigration policies and “social order” needs to be explored more fully.
An understanding of the dynamism of politics in the modern context from the standpoint of political sociology begins by seeing society and the political system as inseparable and mutually permeable. This paper will explore the conditions of modern democracy, by which the author means a flexible and stable politics that can (re) construct social and political order in the long run in a dynamic and dialecticai way through open and critical ‘dialogue’ in several spheres, within or between the political system and society.
Recently, some social plans have been made with a particular method in which the “output level” of the plan is determined regardless of the “input level. ” The significance of this planning method can be clarified by comparing it with the logic of “difference between benefits and costs” or “cost-effectiveness ratios” we ordinarily use. How should we decide which method will be used for each plan? Based on the hypothesis that our society has pluralistic values, and that the “commensurability” and the “replaceability” of utilities do not always exsist, we can argue that it would depend on whether or not the utilities of the output and the input of a particular plan are assumed to have these properties.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between ‘Sciences of Complexity’ and ‘Social System Theory’ To date, numerous attempts have been made by sociologists to demonstrate what Parsons, T. and Luhmann, N. intended in their theory. But little attention has been given to an examination of the relation between ‘System Theory’ and their ‘Social System Theory’. Therefore I will attempt to clarify the following three issues. The first issue to be discussed is a survey of the history of System Theory, specifically, I would like to point out that Sciences of Complexity ensues from Bertalanffy's General System Theory. The second issue is to demonstrate which aspects of System Theory Parsons and Luhmann introduced into their theories. Finally, I will describe the present state of ‘Social System Theory’ and ‘Sciences of Complexity’.
In this paper, I will examine F. Ringer's reception of Bourdieu's concepts of “champ/field” and “habitus” in the study of intellectual history. Using his own methodology, M. Jay criticizes Ringer's discussion and Bourdieu's concepts. Naturally, their differences arise from their theories of knowledge of intellectual history and society. From my viewpoint, these differences are relevant in order to further my own epistemological and methodological standpoint as it relates to my research on the Frankfurt School.
This paper examines the logic that Alberto Melucci has developed towards a new paradigm of social movement theory. In his serious attempt at a paradigm change, he has constructed a theory of collective action that has so far attracted less attention than his theses on the information society, but which nonetheless deserves a systematic reconstruction. From his phenomenological perspective, contrasted here with a modern technological perspective, sociological concepts like “social change” and “action system” are examined up to the point where his key concept of “collective identity” is formulated. The logic of its formulation will show itself as a reconstruction of the concept of social movement.
We all make judgements about personal identity in daily life and attach importance to it. In studying the question of personal identity, we are trying to clarify and analyze the concepts we have and the principles we employ in making such judgements. The empiricist theory of personal identity proposed by Derek Parfit has been highly influential. In this paper, I attempt to make a detailed explication of his theory and to review it from a sociological standpoint. I suggest that Parfit's theory of personal identity fails to illuminate the meaning of ascription of responsibility.
This paper is a logical analysis of reality in images. I use the term “reality” to mean the force that compels us to repeatedly experience an image and at the same time attracts our visual desire. There are two purposes here: (1) to reveal the origin of “reality” in images, and (2) to consider what kind of desire could be generated by stimulating our sensibility. Regarding the concrete analysis, I first reveal characteristics of the human sense of sight. Secondly, I analyze the features of images and the human visual desire using Barthes's concept of “the gaze” and Lacan's concept of “objet petit a”. Finally, I present that the origin of “reality” in images consists in “the gaze” as “objet petit a”.
This paper deals with the development of the modern mode of news reporting by newspapers in the early Meiji era. It has been said that modern news can be characterized by its “actuality”, which means that news should report “facts” themselves on the spot. Complete pursuit of “actuality”, however, would render the news itself impossible, because “facts themselves” cannot be defined in principle. How did new-born modern newspapers in the Meiji era break this bottleneck? To explore this question, I analyze several newspaper articles on two murders in this period that indicate different attitudes towards “facts”. In conclusion, I point out that an actual resolution of the impossibility of news at that time was to appropriate texts written by “others”, such as testimonies in the court, as “facts”.
This paper attempts to model the objective reporting definition by analyzing its elements in Japanese journalism study in order to consider various discourses within these definitions. Seven elements were extracted: (A) reporting without subjectivity, (B) fair and neutral reporting, (C) reporting of a fact, (D) showing a news source, (E) using a byline, (F) carrying opposite opinions, and (G) discriminating between news and editorials clearly. A combination of these elements constitutes a definition model. In conclusion, seven elements constituting the objective reporting definition logically result in one hundred-five kinds of definition models. That is the reason why so many discourses arise within objective reporting and discussions sometimes go amiss.
In Japanese newspapers of the 1990s, the representation of the “housewife” was liberated from her family and/or her housework. Thus it seems that she has not been truly individualized, but only potentially individualized. Beck, U. argued that individualization is a liberation from an industrialized form of life and culture, and at the same time, it is the forced reconstruction of a life style. But this risky phase has not been dealt with in the case of the “housewife”. She left her family for the public sphere, but was not permitted access to power. Her activity was full of intimate emotion and abundant marginality. It includes an alternative in the industrialized society that sets a high value on labor/production.
The purpose of this analysis is to examine determinants of husbands' participation in domestic work and child-care in Japan. Using a multivariate analysis of data from the 1999 National Family Research in Japan, this study explored the factors that affect husbands' participation in these activities. Findings indicated that the need for household labor, couples' time availability, income disparity between spouses, gender role ideology, and husbands' level of education were significant determinants of their household behavior. The factors determining child-care behavior were different from those of household labor: the need for child-care, time availability, and level of education were consistent determinants, but income disparity between spouses and gender role ideology were not found to be significant.
This paper aims to understand what is meant by “caring” in professions. It is often said that in professions, “functional diffuseness” is required in “caring”. However, it is also said that “functional speciality” is necessary for professions because the relationship between professionals and their clients is specialized. In this search, I tried to understand the content of these assertions, through an analysis of the process of judging patients' needs. After such consideration, I raised the question of the general model of professions.
Over the past few years a considerable number of studies have been made on war mobilization and the memory of war, but there seems some confusion between the two. Of course issues are surely not irrelevant to each other. The aim of this paper is to clarify each issue and make a connection between the two in terms of “discourse”. In conclusion, we suggest that the relation between war mobilization and memory of war should be understood in terms of discourse of war mobilization and demobilization in historical studies of modern and contemporary society.
This paper uses the case of Reiyukai Kyodan in order to examine the effects and functions that Japanese new religions have for women as housewives. In Reiyukai Kyodan, women can establish themselves as well as gain self-confidence through a variety of religious practices. In addition, Reiyukai Kyodan, as a religious group, allows women to participate in the public sphere and to acquire social status in accordance with their increasing influence in modern society.
During the 1980s, the political participation system in French municipalities has developed. Most municipalities began a consultative system for foreign residents because they could not afford to manifest their political will. The creation of this new system was influenced by the French republican principle and its aversion to ethnically-based political organization. In other words, while the consultative system exists only for the foreign residents, the foreigners are not allowed to manifest ethnic interest. Their participation is based on republican principles. Since the beginning of 1990s, with the development of social diversification, the consultative system has been considered to be a system that could compensate dysfunction of the representative democracy based on republican principles.
The aim of this paper is to examine the strategic use of national/ethnic concepts and its background by using the case of the Naga independence movement in Northeast India. More precisely, I analyze the independence movement in terms of the nation and the recent international activity in terms of the indigenous people of the Nagas that have been defined as tribes. Using this case, it becomes clear that the national/ethnic concepts such as “tribe, ” “nation, ” and “indigenous people” are not the essentialistic definitions of the group, but rather the strategic concepts influenced by the international situation or the ideology of the times.
The aim of this paper is to reexamine the social stratification among migrant workers in Japan. Aoki (1992) states that it is based on ethnicity, along with factors such as legal status, social networks and labor skill. However, it has not been thoroughly considered whether ethnic differences are really the key to creating divisions among such migrants. Using research in Kotobuki, Yokohama, the author points out that it is hard to find any particular criteria by which stratification among migrants is established. In many studies of migrants in Japan, the concept of ethnicity, as ambiguous as it may be, has tended to be cited as a cause of existing situations and differences. It would be better to focus on the process of categorization of migrants, especially undocumented ones who become legalized.
This paper analyzes, in historical perspective, the process by which a corporate management stratum emerged in Ube, a city in Yamaguchi prefecture. Following administrative unification beginning in the Meiji era, Ube developed around the coal-mining industry. The management of coal-mining firms was made up, not of the large landowners of the uppermost social stratum, but of people of the upper and upper-middle strata village dwellers. The growth of coal mining led to a rapid increase in population. Sharp confrontation eventually arose between native residents (management) and newcomer residents (labor). Upholding the slogan “unanimous cooperation, ” the corporate management stratum promoted local unity, paving the way for the village's transformation into an industrial city.
As urban spaces become commodified for the ‘tourist gaze’, consumers play an important role in the process of ‘branding’, or the aetheticization in which producers attach images to spaces. This paper will discuss what kinds of people consume the aetheticized space. Consuming spaces implies seeing physical landscapes through such images and that notions of both images and physical landscapes precede it. It has been said that the upper-middle class and households without children tend to recognize both of them as important. Our research in Daiba shows the same tendency. It also reveals that older people consume the commodified space much more than younger people.
In this paper, we discuss youth with low educational attainment who are second-generation manual laborers. A case study was undertaken to explore the reasons they chose such jobs. The author worked for a transport company where he observed and interviewed six young men between the ages of 16 and 21. Their choice to enter a manual-labor job was seen to be influenced by the following factors: first, the value norm that gives importance to freedom and independence in their teenage years, and second, the relative comfort and ease of the life-style associated with manual labor when compared with jobs requiring higher levels of education.
This essay discusses the issue of data management in life history research. Frequently asked questions in life course research include the status of the individual at a specific time, and what kind of household or organization she or he belonged to at the time. This essay illustrates that Relational Database Management System (DBMS) is the ideal tool for efficient data-management in life course research, using as an example our research project, “The Discharge of Four Thousand Coal Minners of Jyoban Tanko K.K”. This essay suggests that designing an appropriate database leads to improved conceptualization in the data analysis stage.