Based on monuments discovered in a former air base city, this paper examines the collective memory of the visit to Japan in 1929 of the German airship Graf Zeppelin. This research shows memories of World War II associated with those of the visit.
Do we need the concept of “power” in doing historical sociology of discourse? Three years ago, I described the formation and transformation of discursive space of sexuality, especially masturbation, in modern Japan. While some have analyzed this using the concept of “discursive power” toward children and women, I argue here that such explainations are inadequte by analyzing the transformation of discourse on female masturbation and virginity.
Why is that many sociologists say that the theory of cultural reproduction coined by Bourdieu has no applicability to Japan? I have shown that there is a structural mechanism that conceals cultural reproduction in Japanese society. Most high status men become cultural omnivores who are familiar with both popular culture and high culture, but overall men are not major consumers of high culture. Because the public field is occupied mainly by men, their patterns of cultural consumption are taken to stand for the Japanese pattern as a whole and thus Japanese culture is seen as popular and equalitarian. High culture and its reproduction receives little attention because it is largely concealed in private domains dominated by women.
The purpose of this paper is to secure the way to reconsider the theme of “method and object in sociology” by examining Schutz's “methodology of social science.” In his “Commonsense and Scientific Interpretation of Human Action” published in 1953, he was confronted with the discord between two paradigms: one is positivism or so-called scientism, and the other is anti-positivism, hermeneutic, interpretive social science or Geistwissenschaft. We think the problem Schutz faced in 1953 holds true even today. Therefore, in this paper, we criticize the scientism as “self-consciousness of science” following Schutz's notion. And we will show clearly following his notion: “the thought objects constructed by the social scientists refer to and founded upon the thought objects everyday life among his fellow-men.”
Contemporary sociology is often said to be built on multiple paradigms, but there is little substance behind this assertion. New theories or methods such as Foucault's concept of power, discourse analysis, and social constructionism, are not destruction, not even reconstruction, but merely reproduction of traditional sociology. Although they reject concepts such as “subject” or “society”, through their rejection they reintroduce equivalent concepts. If we will really wish to go beyond traditional sociology, we must abandon all terms that attempt an overview of society as a whole and discard almost all attempts to explain social phenomenon. Only a small set of basic concepts, like “addressing and addressed” (J. Butler), and a few regulative concepts based on them, like “response” and “action”, can help us.
This paper considers how the rhetoric of personal development has become the dominant framework for evaluating voluntary activities in Japan. Until the 1970s, volunteer activities had carried various meanings. Some saw voluntary work as a social movement and were very sensitive to the social effects of voluntary activities. Once the welfare budget reached a high level and policies to encourage volunteer activities were initiated in the 1970s, the question of identity became more important than social problems, and volunteer activities came to be perceived as a mechanism for character building on the part of volunteers rather than as a mechanism for solving social problems.
Since the 70's, Dorothy Smith has explored the disjuncture between objectified knowledge and women's experience in her works of feminist sociology. This paper examines the particular use she makes of the concept of “disjuncture” through her work so as to redefine the sociological implications of her arguments. Smith's sociology does not take “women's experience” as a simply private thing. The “experience” is always mediated by “relation of ruling” and transformed into “objectified knowledge” in an invisible process. By critically analyzing this process, Smith shows that investigations on the production of the distinction private-public through the social organization of knowledge could be the main issue of sociology.
It is frequently said that the intellectual climate has changed enormously. The alleged decline in the cultural knowledge of young people is often cited as the main reason for this. But, old patterns of cultural behavior cannot be continued as the intellectual practice of a modern society. We need a new standard of intellectual behavior appropriate to the “information age”. To respond to this issue, I examine the lack of intellectual behavior in Japanese modernization. Focusing on the history of libraries, I examine the changes in the links between intellectual concerns and the academic discipline.
This paper, as part of study that aims at understanding the characteristics of the modern homes, discusses about urban housing surveys in Japan in the 1910-40s, using a method of historical sociology. Housing surveys can be read as discourses on homes. This paper stresses the fact that those surveys described not only the properties of houses but also the relationship between homes and inhabitants. Those surveyors' perspectives were linked to contemporary discourses on homes. The numerous attempts at housing surveys suggest that the process of formation of modern homes was based on ideas and technologies refined at every moment.
In our modern society, the existence of photographic image is taken for granted. This acceptance comes from its reality. As the medium of the realism, the photographic image transparently represents the social life. This reality is not, however, self-explanatory. Rather, it is a product of social and historical constructs. This paper demonstrates this through the analysis of the social and historical modes of reception for documentary photography in the late nineteenth century. Based on an examination of these modes, I describe some historical aspects of the “reality” seen in photographic images.
The aim of this paper is to examine the concept of ‘feeling rules’ and to situate the autonomy on emotional labor. In the sociology of emotion, it is often said that ‘feeling rules’ determines one's emotional experience. People who do emotional labor suffered negative emotional experience determined by ‘feeling rules’. However, is such a determinist perspective correct? In this paper, I try to re-examine the concept of ‘feeling rules’ by relativizing the traditional determinist perspective, and proposing a way for the autonomy of emotional labor.
This article examines the relation between experts and the public on “Detergent Issue” from the perspective of the public understanding of science. It will be shown that in a dispute over the use of a synthetic detergent, there was a discrepancy between the scientific explanations offered by experts and the disquiet, concerns and experience of the public at large.
This paper aims at describing an aspect of traffic accident problems from a sociological point of view by examining institutional procedures of accident investigations called ‘jikkyô-kenbun’. “Interpretative frames” for evaluating professional negligence resulting in injury or death used by the police greatly influence the process of production of ‘jikkyô-kenbun’. However, those records are presented as objective data, describing the factual elements of the accident. As a result, numerous actors that may have had a decisive role in the accident are made invisible, which allows the social system to attribute the responsibility of the accident only to the persons directly involved.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the sociological thought in the Scottish Enlightenment. In order to approach this subject, it is necessary to analyze their moral philosophy, especially the critical point of selfish theory, of Scottish Enlightenment thinkers. They argued against Thomas Hobbes and Bernard Mandeville who developed moral principles and social theories from self-love. The Enlightenment thinkers developed their criticism of selfish theories from a sociological perspective. Therefore, we can use this criticism to examine the nature of their sociological thought. Further, this analysis makes a contribution to reconsidering modern society as an object of experience.
After 1990s, comparative studies of immigration policy have been extensively carried out in Europe and North America. Those studies single out two tendencies in developped countries' immigration policies. There is first a phenomenon of convergence, which suggests a growing homogeneity of immigration policies. This is what I call a “transnational standard”, based on ‘universalistic’ values and norms. Then, we can observe a great variety of local difference, which suggests that each country keeps its own proper character. I define this as a “national standard”. Until now, scholars who have argued for the comparative studies of immigrarion policies have tended to adopt a one-sided approach. However, we should combine both standards so as to fully understand the process of immigration policy-making. This is a complex process that we will try to clarify with the case of French immigration policy toward the “sanspapiers”.
This paper explores the experiences of contradictory mobility among Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) who live the dual lives in their host and home societies. Contradictory mobility is experienced differently depending on the gender and marital status of individual workers as a function of their skill level and educational attainment. Those differences are the result of (1) the existence of a gender-specific global labor market that produces discontinuity between education, skills, or specialization and (2) the gender-specific norms and cultural expectations of the home society.
In families of Korean Settlers in Japan, “chônan”, or eldest sons, inherit the status and power of the family patriarch, and impose on themselves their own expectations as well as their parents'. I will use interview based data on married young men and women in order to examine the various choices of spouse by Korean Settlers in Japan and the relation between gender issues and the position of “chônan” in the family.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a couple that got married after a pregnancy gives meaning to their marriage and interprets it. After analyzing their discourese, I realized that the relation between the pregnancy(and the raising of child) and the marriage is never explicitly mentioned. This is a strategy that allows the couple to talk about their marriage without rhetoric hides the contradictions inherent to their marriage and enables them to give it the same meanings as a ‘love-marriage’. Then it becomes acceptable.
This paper examines the process of formation of parent consciousness in the case of five foster parents. Their opinions were divided according to their will to adopt or not the foster child. When aiming at adoption, their commitment to their role of parents is less strong than when they only aim at bring-up the child. In that case, they attach more importance to the nature of the relationship with the child. Such dilemmas do not occur in ‘natural’ families, as parent consciousness develops spontaneously from the very beginning. This shows us an aspect of ‘natural’ families (blood relation) that is usually taken for granted.
Compared to other advanced countries, there are few organ transplants carried out in Japan based on using organs from “brain dead” donors. The primary cause is that fewer people make provision to donate their organs. This in turn may be in part due to the fact that Japan has no organ procurement organization for transplantation. The end of the system, which is not for the public, is the reason that we do not have this kind of organization in Japan.
This paper examines the caring process of medical professionals. While it is often said that today medical professionals have to cope more effectively with non-medical problems that are part of the life of patients, little attention has been given to how this is to be accomplished. Based on a study of how nurses in “A” hospital setting perceive the life of patients and how they apprehend their needs, I argue that the definition of patient need is always contingent. Effective attention to and care for patients in modern hospitals require recognition of this contingency.
This paper aims at analyzing “subsistence economy” from a sociological point of view. “Subsistence” is a particular economy related to human dignity and life. After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, numerous volunteers engaged themselves in non-profit organizations to give support to the victims of the catastrophe, who had been cut off the rest of the society. I have identified through these activities the formation of a “subsistence economy” where it clearly appears that the weak manage to work with their own ability and become “independent” by the support of the other person. On the basis of this study, I suggest that “subsistence economy” means the formation of “another micro-market” inside market economy.
The purpose of this paper is to examine policy making processes in “Government Failure”, using ‘L' Analyse stratégique’ and the ‘arena’. Our basic assumption is that the repetition of ‘Government Failure’ is related to the problem of the attribution of ‘burdens’. Why and how is this? We will try to give an answer to those questions by studying three cases, the Construction of the bullet express train, the debt of the former Japan National Railway, and the Construction of industrial waste disposal plants. Our analysis reveals that the dysfunction of arenas is the main reason for ‘Government Failure’.