Based on feminist theory of modern family and patriarchy in the industrialized society, this paper examines the strategy of women and its changes in the history of Reiyukai kyodan. Strategy of women is changeable according to social stratum, life style, gender, and generation. The history of strategy of women in Reiyukai kyodan reflects modern patriarchy and its relationship to modernization.
The object of this paper is to show how farm youth adopted urban culture in the nineteen-thirties. We use a diary covering the 1930s kept by one young man born in 1915. According to his diary, he read newspapers and magazines, listened to gramophone recordings and the radio and watched films very often. Further, he traveled to Tokyo once a year. As a consequence, he had a well-developed notion of the nature of urban life. He had a deep longing for urban life as it represented modern rationality to him. However, he strongly objected to the remark theory by men of culture in the city that the farm village life was wonderful. Because the actual arm village life was to be painful. We conclude that this 1930s farm youth held two images of the city: the frivolous and objectionable.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the meaning of changes in the discourse on “Okinawa Problem” before and after the “Return” on the basis of a case study of the National Conference for Educational Research (NCER). This is done in the context of questioning the idea of “postwar”. This research is based on reports from 1966 to 1978 of the NCER by an agency of the Japan Teachers' Union. This paper demonstrates changes in the discourse on “Okinawa Problem” by the “Return”. To study discussions at the NCER chronologically, this paper aims to describe interactions with “Hondo” and Okinawa and to approach to the trait of influence of Power in discourse. I reexamine the “postwar” by giving attention to the voices of Okinawa that was structurally suppressed during the cold war.
This paper explores the parenthood experiences of Filipina/o migrant domestic workers living and working in Germany while leaving their children in the Philippines. The author calls this arrangement “transnational parenthood.” Based on biographical interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, the author examines 1) the ways in which Filipina/o migrant domestic workers experience transnational parenting, 2) what role gender, marital status, and the length of separation play in differentiating parenting experiences across nation-state borders, and 3) fluid identities and gender power dynamics within the household when mother migrants negotiate idealized gender norms in the pursuit of breadwinning and preparing a better future for their children.
This paper explores the effect of Cambodian refugees' experience on the relation of their children in Japan. First of all, I propose a distinction between war generation and post-war generation. Then, I focus on war experience as a source of social change that defines a subjective boundary between these two generations. This subjective boundary coming from the refugee experience and resettlement process shifts from a mere difference to an exclusive one. Consequently, the difficulties posed by the ethnic minority condition are aggravated by intergenerational conflicts.
Associative activity, now expanding among immigrant women, particularly coming from Africa, mainly focus on supporting immigrants in their everyday life in French society. Their activities are of socio-cultural mediation, as they intend to assure communication between institutions and immigrant women, excluded from legal procedures because of their unfamiliarity with French legislation. The main characteristics of this association are trans-ethnicity, social proximity and accessibility. In particular, their knowledge about the two cultures allows them to treat also so-called private matters concerning everyday lives and/or female bodies such as polygamy and female genital mutilation. The fact that African women discuss private matters in public lets us appreciate their capability of mobilizing capital as social actors. By analyzing their forms of expression, we can reconsider the line of demarcation between the public and private spheres in the nation-state.
This paper attempts to clarify an aspect of civil activities on the web considered as a public space by analyzing the non-profitable organization (NPO) Freedom of Information Citizen Center's activities. The Center, established in 2001, assists citizens in accessing information on public administrations. It has set up a home page on the web to discuss strategies of access for citizens. In the site there is also a forum of discussion that allows communication between citizens and clerks of public sectors. Their inter-permeations disclose new potentials that can affect social movements. By analyzing these communications, this paper aims to show the possibility of Internet as a public space for civil activities.
The U.S. witnessed a wave of collectivist organizations in the 1970s. A decade later, by taking the U.S. collectivist organizations as their models, organizations called “workers' collectives” have emerged in Japan that share many characteristics of the U.S. collectivist organizations. However, the Japanese workers' collectives challenge the rational bureaucratic model by locating themselves inside the social system including the market and governmental regulations, whereas the collectivist organizations are more likely located outside the system. Being inside the system, the workers' collectives face more conflicts and difficulties than the U. S. collectivist organizations because the Japanese workers' collectives experience external pressures to become similar to the rational bureaucratic model.
This paper clarifies the relation between what I call “Simplified Ideology” and the formalization of NPO/NGO activities. This “Simplified Ideology” is a simplified form of an existing organizational ideology that NPO/NGO members employ whenever they encounter difficulties on the ground. As a matter of fact, the strict formalization of their activities, however, tends to result in a diminished capacity to answer quickly to the situation at hand. Then, in this paper, I will argue that an accurate use of the “Simplified Ideology” may help prevent such problems. The use of the “Simplified Ideology” may also contribute to the development of NPO/NGO's “creativity”, required to solve problems encountered in the field. In this regard, I analyze the activities of (1) Médecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) and (2) the Japan International Volunteer Center (JVC).
In psychotherapy of “gender identity disorder” in Japan, psychiatrists assess the “sex of mind” of their clienteles. In this process, medicine first treats the invisible “sex of mind” as more essential than the visible sexed body, then as visible in the clientele's looking, behaviors, talks etc. The aim of this article is to examine how medicine treats the sex category according to this paradoxical logic, using the review of medical discourses and scripts based on interviews of “gender identity disorder” clientele. Through this process of description of the medical practice, it is showing how, by seeing the clientele's display as trans-situational clues of the “sex of mind”, this practice may be actually seeing very “sex of mind”.
“Coming Out” is a central concept in Lesbian and Gay studies. Ordinary, this word means that one tells her/his sexuality to others. But, In Lesbian and Gay studies, “Coming Out” has a special meaning. According to D. Altman, “Coming Out” is an action that liberates gay people from social oppression towards sexual behavior. However, Foucault later criticized this idea. He stressed our subjection to a web of knowledge/power which denies any possibility of liberation. Lesbian and Gay studies accepted Foucault's idea, and “Coming Out” was then regarded as an act of resistance. But this interpretation was a mistake. As a result of this acceptance, Lesbian and Gay studies have lost a concrete object for a politic of resistance. The aim of this paper is to reconsider the notion of power and “Coming Out”.
Although family norms have been one of the most important concepts for the sociological studies of family, it has rarely been discussed explicitly: what is it? how does it work? and how can we approach it? This paper examines the concept of family norms itself and try to present the different perspective from “the standard theory of the family” and its critics. This perspective, drawing on some ideas from ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, relocates family norms in the interaction settings and focuses on the procedure by which the participants use a variety of family norms as interpretive resources to make social reality accountable.
This paper analyzes parental norms concerning “self-sacrifice” using the data from the National Family Research (NFR98). First, parental norms are measured by gender, the presence or absence of children, and the birth cohort. The “self-sacrifice” norm was weakest for women born in 1946 who had children with a tendency for the norm to be stronger in younger cohorts. The sample was limited to mothers whose youngest child was under 6 years of age and factors determining the strength of the “self-sacrifice” norm were investigated. As a result of multi-variable analysis, it can be said that educational background was an important determinant of the “self-sacrifice” norm. Especially among college graduate woman, the mother's “self-sacrifice” norm consciousness was low. 2) When the mother's “self-sacrifice” norm consciousness was low, the relation with the child was perceived as not being good.
The purpose of this article is to establish the effect of female university graduates' professional situation on marriage decision. In this perspective and to reveal the determinants of marriage decision I made four hypotheses and verified them by analyzing the result of a questionnaire survey. This questionnaire survey was conducted on female university graduates who graduated co-educational universities or women's universities (career colleges, liberal arts colleges, or both) aged from 28 to 38 in 2001. The main findings were as follow: women who cannot establish a secured professional position postpone their marriage; women's social and professional independence has a direct effect on their marriage willingness. Consequently, it has become necessary to establish a policy that enables a stable professional career situation for these women.
The aim of this paper is to analyze from the perspective of “self-narrative” theory how bereaved people reconstruct their “self-narrative” when it is disrupted as a result of bereavement. A loss of a loved one makes it difficult for people to continue to relate their self-narrative. Therefore, they need to reconstruct their self-narrative so that they can give meaning to the bereavement and can find direction for the future. This paper tries to clarify a part of this work of reconstruction through examining a narrative of the bereaved.
In this case study I describe the process of coming to terms with the meaning of disability from the point of view of people who live in residential institutions for those with intellectual disabilities. Recently, more and more articles based on qualitative research have attempted to show how participants interpret the social service field, such as hospitals or institutions for people with disability, and how they interpret disability or illness. This paper is also based on qualitative research using interviews to elicit the life histories of residents in institutions. In this paper, I give particular emphasis the way in which residents have formed their identity as “disabled” through conversations with professions.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss attitudinal problems that researchers tend to have in interview research, specifically in the context of doing research on ‘Hikikomori’ individuals. I consider this through an analysis of how I carry out interviews with ‘Hikikomori Tohjisha’ persons who regard themselves as ‘Hikikomori.’ In so doing, I focus especially on the narratives concerning the ‘beginnings’ of their ‘Hikikomori’ and on how I transcribe and interpret these narratives. In the conclusion, I suggest the importance of researchers clarifying their own unconscious assumptions about ‘Hikikomori.’
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the “same” experiences, which are often described in self-help groups. It is said that one principle of self-help groups is “sharing”. But so far, the pioneering studies do not illuminate what are “the same” experiences, or what is shared, under this principle. The view of this paper is that “sharing” is not literally accepted, but is more than a slogan. By analyzing a self-help group in a BBS, I will demonstrate the relationship between the “same”/“different” experiences and activities.
The purpose of this essay is to reconsider by reviewing classic works the possibilities of the Interpretive Approach that attaches importance to the “actor” and to the “subjectivity”. Contemporary sociology has been devided into minute sub fields by the advent of mini-paradigms. While the Interpretive Approrch is seen as beefing opposition to the Stracture-Fanctional Theory that is called authentic sociology, classic works of the Interpretive Approach genre contain “stracture” and “objectivity”. The two approaches are mutually related. The Interpretive Approach can be developed in a constructive way that is not a criticism of either deconstructionism or of conventional sociology but which places the focuses on interpretation itself.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the relationship between the political sphere and the philosophical one by examining the second debate between Rawls and Habermas. Whether the political conceptions in democratic regimes can be justified from the philosophical standpoint of impartiality or from the standpoint of citizens whose shared public values are reasonable depends on what kind of method the observers adopt. Clarifying the notion of the citizen, the person, and the observer as they occur in Rawls, I indicate that the concept of “impartiality” Habermas considers valid requires the citizens adopt the observer's perspective. Hence I conclude Habermas' method is too rigoristic.
Although Schutz criticized Husserl and Sartre's theories of alter ego as solipsism, Schutz himself has often been criticized as a solipsist. This paper aims at affirming him as a solipsist in resistance to the sociological taboo of solipsism. Schutz appears as a phenomenological sociologist in the history of sociology, but his theory also had psychological aspects. When we forget these aspects of Schutz's thought the problem of sociological discrimination arises. Mixing his non-subjectivist and conservative images increases this problem.
The relationship between “Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy” has been one of the central problems of the European (Christian) cultural world, but it has been largely ignored in the studies of Max Weber's sociology of religion. The contention in this paper is that Weber did not directly address this problem in his studies of Protestantism, but rather discussed it in his studies of the “Asian cultural world”, namely in “Confucianism and Taoism” and “Hinduism and Buddhism”. The problem of “Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy” is therefore related not only to “Church and Sect” and “Toleration and Exclusion”, but also to “‘Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy’ and Heathenism”. Here one receives a glimpse into the secret background of Weber's “comparative” sociology of religion.