The construction of the public sphere through discourse is ever more important in our modern society. Arendt and Habermas are the most significant therorists who deal with this theme. However their thinking shows very interesting contrasts, especially in terms of the relation between discourse and politics. Arendt excluded any instrumentality from communications, therefore public sphere in her reflections lost its means to adjust conflicts of interest. In contrast, Habermas defined communication as a means to reach a consensus. But, as a consequence of this, his publics lost the differentiation between freedom and necessity, one of the most fundamental issues in politics. In this paper, through the consideration of this aporia, we seek to explore the limits and possibilities of communication in the public realm.
Previous works concerning the form of exclusive interaction have focused on practices in which the excluded persons are deprived of positions as the “subject”. From this perspective, it is difficult to criticize ambiguous exclusion. Focusing on the fact that the normality of the excluded people is constructed through mutual interaction, I describe the methods of exclusion that are used even when the position as the “subject” is maintained. In order to criticize such ambiguous exclusion, we should be aware that there are alternative methods by which participants can construct mutual normality without exclusion and advocate an interactional culture where ambiguous exclusion is considered to be improper.
This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of using both the idea of membership categorization device (MCD) and findings of sequential organization at the same time in order to analyze interaction. First, it is shown that MCD is identified with findings of logico-grammatical analysis. Second, it is shown that MCD is in fact rejected by one of the methodological constraints laid by E. Schegloff, “The problem of procedural consequence”. Third, it is maintained that this rejection leads to the possibility that we cannot fully explicate members' description because it underestimates the relevance of MCD in each setting. Finally, an alternative is proposed: using both MCD and findings of sequential organization at the same time.
We, as Sociologists or as Laymen, often explain human conducts using categories, as in “A does X, because A is woman”. But as Harvey Sacks showed, we have at least two (collections of) categories that can correctly be applied to any member of society. “Sex” and “Age”. So, here is one problem. How can we, especially as sociologists, justify explanations such as the example? Sacks's answer is: By analyzing the orientations that members themselves regard as relevant to their conduct. But, again, we do not usually explicitly enunciate the categories that are applied to us such as in saying “I am woman, so I do X”. Here, another problem occurs. How can we access to the orientation of members? This paper will try to answer this latter problem by analyzing data in which sex-categorization is done by members themselves without actually explicitly stating any sex/gender category.
The aim of this paper is to reexamine Cynthia Enloe's military studies, including her early studies of the military and ethnicity. Contemporary feminist scholars regard Enloe as the pioneer who created the first gender studies of the military in the 1980s. However, Enloe's viewpoint of “women and the military” stems not only from contemporary feminist studies, but also from her early studies of the military and ethnicity. This paper demonstrates that since the 1970s Enloe has consistently maintained a viewpoint that is less an a priori interest in the military qua military and more an interest in military-societal linkages.
Jogaku-Zasshi, first published in 1885, played a leading role in constructing the model of modern Japanese women. The impact of the magazine was notable in introducing not only Christianity, but also the western lifestyle. Despite such discourse, it was also eager to insist on Japanese-ness, admiring the imperial family and claiming the importance of women to the nation. In this paper, the question is: what did the amalgam of westernization and Japanese-ness mean? Such westernization as enlightenment was ‘mimicry’ as Bhabha defined as concerns the editor seeing the woman ‘as a subject of a difference that is almost the same, but not quite’. Moreover, westernization led to a greater awareness of the nation making it inevitable that even in such a westernized periodical women were burdened with the task of preserving Japanese values.
In this paper, I examine a case in which regular female employer resigned after childbirth even though she wished to continue their employment. In doing so, I hope to show how a split is being created between women who feel that they can ask for maternity leave quite easily and those who feel that they cannot. There is clearly a problem of differential and selective treatment when it comes to women who wish to maintain their employment after pregnancy. It is my finding that the process by which resignation finally occurs is really the path by which a woman is forced to accept unfair treatment.
Japanese Morse code telegraphers have been given a position of honor and a specific place in the culture of the workplace, dating back to the Meiji Period. However, they rapidly lost their power and influence after the Second World War when the Teleprinter —a fully automated telegraph— began to replace Morse code and spread throughout the country. The historical question then arises: Why were Japanese Morse code telegraphers so influential and perceived as so honorable? The objective of this paper is to approach the organizational culture of the Telegrapher, to examine the role which this culture played in the formation of their gendered identities and the way in which this culture changed.
The purpose of this study is clarifying the problem of career education focused on the children's concern. The sample is third grade junior high school students and sixth grade elementary school students. Responses to question such as “What kind of work do you want to do when you glow up?” and “Why do you think that is what you want to do?” were analyzed. Analysis revealed the following points. 1) Most often girls and students with low academic ability wished for an occupation chosen “because I like it.” 2) Therefore, this reason will increase differences in career expectations by gender and may also function to justify withdrawal from academic selection. 3) Current career education that provides such a rationale has the potential to provide convenient excuse for children withdrawing from meritocratic selection based on academic performance.
In this paper, I investigate the effects of social networks that provide career support as well as those that are instrumental in attaining higher status jobs. I use data collected from males and females who work in metropolitan areas and in my analyses I take account of the reasons for changing jobs. The results show that receiving advice from personal acquaintances about job changes did not help the respondents land jobs with high status. However, for those who involuntarily left jobs, advice from people in their social network was helpful in finding jobs that brought a high level of satisfaction in terms of prospects for stable employment.
Since the early 1990s, there has been growing public criticism of bilingual education or bilingualism in the United States. In this context, Hispanic immigrants have been portrayed as clinging to their own language and culture and are reluctant to become assimilated in American society. However, this image of Hispanic immigrants may well be a stereotype that needs to be examined as to whether it reflects the actual situation. For this purpose, this paper examines views of language and identity held by Hispanics using interviews with parents and observations of classes in two elementary schools in Hispanic communities in downtown Los Angeles.
This paper attempts to analyse and explain contemporary peace movements in Okinawa from the perspective of cultural studies. First, it will be pointed out that recent discussions on Okinawa, either in the context of sociology or cultural studies, do not provide a sufficient account of the complexity of communication among Okinawans, mainland Japanese and citizens abroad who are involved in these movements. Next, based on field research in Okinawa carried out by the author, it will be highlighted that each individual committed to the movements, irrespective of his/her regional backgrounds, takes pains in making use of his/her respective knowledge and experience to make an original contribution to them. As a result, it will be asserted that we may have to pay more attention to the subtle relation existing between regionally grounded collective identity and individual differences in discussing Okinawan issues rather than overemphasizing the binary opposition between Okinawans and mainland Japanese as the past discussion on Okinawa has tended to do.
The purpose of this paper is to consider how a NPO group constructs a collective identity. That “collective identity is a process” has been recognized, but there has been no explicit discussion of how those doing surveys should record that process. In consideration of this point, I examine the creation and maintenance of a collective identity in a specific NPO focusing on the on the importance of shared experiences. Through examination of the process of collective identity construction, I focus on the meaning of acts in the NPO group. In this paper I use the NPO group “Shibafu-spirit” as an example case.
In this study, I interviewed people who recovered from eating disorders. This revealed that individual understanding of their illness experiences had changed before recovery and after recovery. Heretofore, the research emphasis in the field of medical anthropology and medical sociology has been on “Illness Narratives” by individual suffering. In contrast, this study has focused on “Healing Narratives” by individual recovery. By showing the sociological research issues found in these “Healing Narratives”, I give meaning to hear the voices of people who have recovered from illness and difficulties.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how bonds with the deceased are maintained with special attention given to the relationship between the bereaved and others. First, we show that a bereaved parent who participates in a ‘Parents group in B hospital’ sustains the memory of the child by keeping a relation with other members. Next, we show that members of the group jointly maintain the bonds of parents with their deceased child although talking about the departed is constrained by the aims of the group.
From the mid 1990s, a new form of fashion has occupied part of the urban space of Japan: “street fashion”. What are the patterns of organization and communication in the urban space formed by “street fashion”? This paper attempts to examine “Ura-Harajuku”, the center of post 1980s' fashion in Tokyo, applying a dramaturgical approach. After that, the range of the approach itself and its limits are considered.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze convenience stores (CVS) as consumption spaces. CVS are the most spread form of retail store in Japan. Consumers enter CVS not only to buy commodities, but also to experience a kind of relief. This experience is called “Placeless relief” in this paper. Although many CVS initially sold perishable foods, most CVS now concentrate on selling packaged foods and providing services such as taking payments for utility goods and accepting parcels for delivery, etc. These services are possible only when CVS are part of a chain store network. Point of Sales (POS) systems enable CVS to link production-distribution-consumption circuits at extremely speed. These two networkings (chain store and POS systems) produce “Placeless relief” for consumption. This self-sufficient consumption substitutes for consumption as enactment.