Throughout the history of nuclear development in the United States, the accompanying environmental risks have been invisible to the general public. This is largely because the federal government has isolated each specific process, from the uranium mining to the radioactive waste disposal, inside the National Sacrifice Zone, which was inhabited historically by American-Indian tribes. The spatial construction of the National Sacrifice Zone, which was justified by referring to the notion of national security, has reproduced a state of exception. By looking at the historical geography of uranium mining in the Navajo Nation, this paper articulates the social processes inherent in the exclusion of indigenous land, bodies, and rights from the federal government's legal obligations to protect its own citizens. This structural colonialism over the indigenous nations, intertwined with their geographical marginalization, has formed the core of the reproduction of risks in nuclear development inside the U.S.
This paper deals with practices against the risks from a disaster two years after the March 11th Great East Japan Earthquake. Setting the scene in a temporary housing agglomeration in Kesennuma, a devastated coastal city, I have been collecting longitudinal narratives of local people who are building a new community in a temporary village. I have also continued to observe the philosophy, know-how, and management of an NPO running this temporary village's community center. Following their experience of social care after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, the NPO developed methods to detect the symptoms of depression, alcohol-dependency, and solitude. The prevalence of various techniques to tackle the risks caused by having to endure shelter life over a long period illustrates Japan's progress in being able to form a resilient society. In addition, at the end of the paper, I shall try to identify factors that contribute to enhancing a community's ability to accept outside support.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the terms and conditions for the formation of the order of national rituals in pre-war Japan, in particular, Shinto shrine rituals. First, the study outlines the Ministry of Home Affairs' process, as part of its administration of Shinto shrines, of designating shrines as places for national rituals. Next, the Ministry of Home Affairs' Bureau of Shrines' unification of the “Procedures for Shrine Ritual Observance” and the government and the public's formation of the genre of shrine ritual procedural manuals are described. Books detailing “Procedures for Shrine Ritual Observance” were used as manuals for training sessions and ritual instructional sessions for members of the clergy. These resulted in the standardization of the evaluation of the participants in these rituals. Finally, this paper shows how, after the 1930s, under these terms and conditions, “indiscretions” in shrine rituals became increasingly problematic.
The aim of this paper is to examine voluntary and involuntary job separations among Japanese men and women. Compared to past research, the focus in this study is on (1) the relationship between the rates of job mobility and previous job histories, and (2) the change in the situation after the period of economic stagnation. A discrete-time multinomial logit model is adopted using Japan's 2005 Social Stratification and Social Mobility Survey. The result shows that while men have not experienced any change in the likelihood of job shifts depending on past job histories, it is becoming more likely for women with past job separations to leave their current jobs voluntarily. This can be interpreted as being consistent with past arguments which maintain that the Japanese labor market is segmented and that some parts of it have remained stable.
In this study, we discuss the nature of the relationship between the intimate sphere of the modern youth of Japan and the communication taking place within this world. Modern youth communicate daily on the basis of joint relationships that are formed while maintaining a collective balance with others. This figurative method of communication is known symbolically as the [Nori] concept. The communication of [Nori] takes place by tuning into one's surroundings, and by cooperating with the group in order to reduce complexity. From this point, depending on the members of the group and the situation, a carnival (upsurge) is created. Through this type of communication, modern youth are able to recursively confirm that they have a place in their group.
This paper analyzes role sharing between family members caring for their elderly co-resident relatives and professional carers, such as home helps, nurses and care managers, with a focus on the burden of communication between them, and the ways in which their roles are defined. The results are as follows. On the one hand, professional carers confine their roles to a form of care that may employ many staff. On the other hand, family care givers desire as few staff as possible, as the burden on communication, especially information exchange, for family care receivers is thereby mitigated. Because of these differences between the role sharing practices of professional carers and the desires of family caregivers, the burden involved in the exchange of information about the person directly receiving care for family caregivers gets heavier.
To be a creative city is now one of the most popular policy goals for urban governments, although the concept is ambiguous and critics are skeptical about its ability to regenerate urban areas. This paper examines the role that this concept plays in urban governance. First, I explain the political economic process called ‘glocalization’, which has enhanced inter-urban competition since the 1970s. Then I describe how urban politics has been transformed, taking on an entrepreneurial form, and how cultural policy is used to reconstruct an urban image to attract investment and human capital. Although rebuilding a city's image is a contested process, the ambiguity of the term ‘creative city’ as a policy issue is utilized to mobilize various political and cultural actors for urban growth.
This paper presents an analysis of a researcher's academic position when getting published in The Annual Review of Sociology and the Japanese Sociological Review during each academic year from 2001 through 2010. The study examines the general situation of young researchers hoping to get published in these academic journals and tries to identify how often their theses are ultimately published. In particular, it focuses on the peer review system in order to understand the strategic thinking that young researchers employ when submitting their theses. By comparing the two journals, this study identifies the problems faced by young researchers and suggests strategies for solving these problems.
The aim of this paper is to analyze face-to-face interactions between members of sexual minorities and members from the sexual majority (heterosexuals) and to examine the possibilities of a better understanding between the two. To accomplish this, two types of qualitative research were conducted. The first consisted of interviews with LGBs, and the second took the form of participatory field-work in a self-help group, where both sexual minorities and heterosexuals were members. It was found that heterosexuals became a sexual minority at the club while sexual minorities became a majority. Heterosexuals in the club expressed their feelings about difficulties in Japan, which melts the line between minorities and the majority. This transposition of sexualities introduced heterosexuals to the pseudo-experience of being members of a minority and, at the same time, the club gave sexual minorities the chance to imagine friendly relations with heterosexuals near them but outside the group.
Although studies of social stratification have analyzed the scale of wage gaps by gender/age/education, discussions relating to the situation where those wage gaps arise are limited. On the other hand, labor studies have precisely analyzed personnel management within organizations, however it is doubtful whether all the wage gaps found through studies of social stratification can be explained in this way. In this paper, we use employer-employee matching data to discover in what situation wage gaps based on personal variables arise. As a result, it is clear that wage gaps between male and female regular employees arise within organizations, on the other hand, wage gaps by education mainly arise between organizations.
The aim of this paper is to consider a contrast between “mechanized ossification” and the “struggle of the gods.” In ‘The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.’ Weber was afraid that Western culture would enter a state of “mechanized ossification.” “Mechanized ossification” is a key concept in Weber's explanation of modern Western stagnation. Based on his concern regarding “mechanized ossification,” I consider Weber's writings and clarify the positive side of the “struggle of the gods,” which many have considered to be Max Weber's pessimistic diagnosis of modern culture.
This paper examines how the process of migration and the transnational “national liberation movement” led by the PKK (Kurdistan Worker's Party) interact in the transnational spaces that migrants are involved in. While the radical protest actions of Kurdish people in Europe against oppression in their homelands has drawn the attention of scholars since the end of the 1990s, the impact of the movement on Kurdish communities and on individuals' lives seems to have been neglected. I will explore and discuss this interwoven process on the basis of the life-stories of Kurdish migrants in Germany. This enables us to see the not very radical nature of their “national” consciousness as Kurds, although women's liberation in the PKK as well as the individual's required devotion to the movement have an effect on the immigration process in which families experience reunification, unification and dissolution.
Almost Seventy years have passed since the atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Lots of atomic bomb survivors have talked about their catastrophic experiences in public but there have also been many of survivors who have kept silent in public about the experience and about their lives afterwards. This article is based on interviews with thirteen survivors. Eight of them have never talked about their experiences in public. Listening closely to their concerns and thoughts, one reason became clear. They have hoped to live with atomic bomb victims. It appears that their silence is the expression of their resistance. Referring to Butler's giving an account of self, this might be able to be called the logic of resistance through silence. The logic of silent resistance is meaningful, because it provides a new perspective for atomic bomb survivors. Their words and attitudes of resistance can contribute to the development of a new theory for peace.
This paper aims to examine “Theory of Mind” approaches and the criticizms of them and to make it clear how these approaches conceptualize the understanding of others and what kind of problem lies inside this conceptualization. Simultaneously, it also intends both to reveal the problems in these approaches with regard to the appreciation of children with autistic spectrum disorder and to provide a perspicuous representation for sociological study in this field.
In recent years, “Kosodate-hiroba (Child Care Space)” has been increasing in Japan. According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, “Hiroba” is a space where parents and children can communicate, and where the aim is to relieve feelings of isolation or uneasiness. In this paper, I pay attention to mothers' sociability in “Hiroba”, and I analyze how the mothers' sociability operates and what they gain from the experience. This analysis clearly shows both that mothers relativize a norm of what it means to be a mother, and that they enjoy being mothers through the sociability that they encounter in this space.
The purpose of this paper is to define art through systems theory and in terms of social motivation. On the basis of social function in systems theory, I try to examine the motivation of art as a system that functions in a way that cannot be achieved by other social systems (politics, economy, law, etc.). First, I describe problems with three approaches in previous art studies that do not sufficiently compare art with other systems and their functions. Second, I treat the motivation of art as entertainment from an alternative perspective, because certain social demands cannot be supplied through other systems. Finally, I consider how art influences other systems and themes in contemporary society.