This paper explores the relationship between the money medium and the analysis of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion. Such mechanisms currently follow a logic of plural or multiple inclusion as opposed to assimilation. In a full-grown monetary economy, money and property have emerged as regulative structures for the participation in economic practice. Discussing the approach of Luhmann, a distinction is drawn between center, semi-periphery, and periphery of the economic system. While the money medium includes the general population into the periphery of the economy through consumption, this contribution can show that the inclusionary mechanism of the center is creditworthiness. It can be demonstrated that in its historical formation the form of credit is organized in a twofold fashion itself: to make profit and to promote social inclusion. Microcredits are analyzed as a global form of inclusion into the center that does not bear on the distinction poor/wealthy.
In order to properly welcome Professor Scaff in Japan, the author of Max Weber in America , it would be necessary to speak something about “Max Weber in Japan” as comment on his excellent presentation. Although this task, too, was already done by another excellent book of the German historian, Professor Wolfgang Schwentker, Max Weber in Japan , I would like to briefly sketch Max Weber in Japan from my own perspective, adding some complementary information to Professor Schwentker's book.
This paper considers the connection between community narrative, personal stories and recovery in a self-help group for neurosis, Seikatsu no Hakken Kai（SHK). SHK is based on Morita therapy, and SHK's community narrative states that recovery is possible when members arrive at a full and correct understanding of Morita therapy. However, not a few members who have achieved recovery by participating in SHK say that their recovery was not only brought about by Morita therapy. This indicates that sometimes the personal stories of SHK members do not conform with SHK's community narrative. By focusing on this point, this paper elucidates the somewhat complicated relationship between community narrative and personal stories and the conditions for recovery in SHK.
Artificial Insemination by Donor (AID) has been performed in secret in Japan for about 50 years. However, we have recently seen an increasing number of problems regarding the welfare of people conceived through AID. The aim of this paper, which uses a social constructionist approach, is to clarify how these people became “claims-making actors.” By analyzing newspaper articles, it was found that Japanese newspapers forced donor offspring to become “actors” who had to go through the newspapers to claim the right to know their origin. Also, the paper suggests, newspapers in Japan both perform the social function and possess the political power to set agendas for the society as a whole.
In Japanese-South-American Migration Studies, the term “nikkei” has been used to refer to Japanese descendants, but this word has concealed a difference between people who have roots in mainland Japan and Okinawans. Historically, many people have emigrated from Okinawa to other countries and mainland Japan where they formed unique multilateral networks, which the author calls Okinawan Diasporic Networks. In this article, by analyzing the migration of Bolivian, Brazilian and Argentine migrants to Tsurumi, Yokohama, the author suggests that the Okinawan Diaspora has functioned as an immigration network for Okinawan-South-American people's migration to Japan. Tsurumi was connected to some communities in South-American countries through the Okinawan Diasporic Networks, and Okinawan people who are from these communities migrated to Tsurumi.
In many developed societies, there is an increase in the number of couples who are cohabiting in unregistered marriages. This trend is often used as an example to indicate changes in consciousness that are part of the transformation of a modern society. Those who have adopted the Japanese term “jijitsukon (unregistered marriage)” to refer to their cohabitation often regard themselves as “married,” yet the question of “why couples in an unregistered marriage choose that option” has received little attention to date. We conclude that the practice of “unregistered marriages” is neither a simple secession from the idea of a conventional “marriage” nor is it restricted to a “traditional” vocabulary. Instead, it should be viewed in terms of a “reinterpretation” of marriage.
The aim of this paper is to present a new perspective of shared reality theory. Sharing realities, that is to say, a shared orientation toward and acting together in the world with others has been conceived substantialistically. However, some problems remain. The paper organizes ideas for thinking about sharing reality through an examination of some major discussions about “cognitive polyphasia” in social representations studies. In this way, a relationalistic perspective on shared reality theory will be presented.
This paper demonstrates the relationship between ethnomethodology and Max Weber's sociology. Ethnomethodology has often been criticized by other sociologists for its research policy and attitudes. To counter such criticism, first we try to verify the affinity between ethnomethodology and the classical sociology discussed by R.A. Hilbert. Second, we demonstrate, through Garfinkel's doctoral dissertation, that Hilbert's discussion of affinity is problematic. Finally, we reconsider the significance of ethnomethodological research through an argument on the affinity between ethnomethodology and Weber's sociology.
This paper is based on interviews with disabled people about pregnancy and prenatal diagnoses. Medical professionals who provide these diagnoses point two advantages. One is that a patient can have a “healthy” child, and the other is that parents, especially the mother, suffer less of a burden whether they choose to bear and bring up a disabled child or decide on an abortion. I review these advantages through the narratives of three people with disabilities whose impairments are issues in preimplantation or a prenatal diagnosis. The three state that we should have a clear understanding of the medicalization of our society, which invents “patients” through the application of medical technology, and that we need to create alternative values to the norm which argues that we ought to have our “own child” who is “healthy.”
Since the outbreak of the Korean War, Sasebo City has received favors because it hosts a U.S. army and navy base. During the war, the number of cyclos that carried officers and soldiers to recreational facilities with prostitutes in Sasebo's red-light district increased. The local government passed ordinances that enabled it to clamp down on these cyclos and “liquidate” them. With these changes in the law and the government's enforcement of the ordinances, the cyclos changed their routes and the urban experience.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how gender meaning was structured and changed between a husband and a wife in Japan in the late 1950s through an analysis of the private letters they exchanged with one another. Some studies have focused on the process of structuring gender between intimate couples through the use of interviews. However, these studies faced difficulties when it came to their analysis of real interactions because the interviewees' statements might have been influenced by the interview itself. In this paper, the M-GTA method, introduced by Yasuhito Kinoshita, was chosen to analyze one interaction. Twenty concepts were used to indicate the process of structuring and change of the meaning of gender in the interaction in one intimate relationship.
Although it is relatively well known that local business owners are active participants in local voluntary activities, we have not had enough opportunities to interpret this phenomenon sociologically. Through a qualitative analysis of one business owners' voluntary association, “Junior Chamber (Seinen-Kaigisho),” and its activity in a local traditional festival, the “Yamakasa” in Iizuka city, this paper reveals both how a local economic network has established a wider civic sensibility and what kind of role it has played in its local community. This shows us the importance of reconsidering the possibility of a form of civic engagement that initially took root in the economic sphere.
This study examines Marcel Mauss's concept of “solidarity” in order to understand his normative claim for society. In his socialist essays on mutual aid associations and cooperatives, “solidarity” is described as a situation where workers' interests are respected more than those of employers, and workers have the right to manage their associations and receive help when living in poverty. In Mauss's The Gift, “solidarity” is described as a situation where individuals' pursuit of their self-interests does not cause a massacre, and people give and return things to each other without being “sacrificed” by the mental hierarchy involved in the act of giving. In addition, Mauss claimed that in order for a mental hierarchy not to be too excessive, people should not be too generous. It should be noted that when arguing for “solidarity,” Mauss always tried to strike a balance between individuals' self-interests and the larger interests of society.
This paper attempts to describe the history of sociology in postwar Japan based on an objective data source: the membership directory of the Japanese Sociological Association. Attempts to describe the history of sociology in postwar Japan have been made repeatedly. However, many appear to have been based on the personal impressions of established sociologists and are therefore “subjective.” The paper tries to describe this history in a verifiable manner, based on data, and compares its results with those founded on “subjective” descriptions. Our findings are so different from what has been suggested by preceding studies. Then, the fact that the insights from the preceding studies have been verified in an objective and reliable manner is a finding in itself. With further, similar attempts, it should be possible to describe the history of sociology in a more multi-faceted and valid manner.