The purpose of this study is to evaluate available water resources for fire-fighting immediately after the earthquake strikes. We have calculated the possibility that pumpers reach water resources, considered roads link closed by collapsed buildings. Data on the risk of road link come from disaster cases with the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. In order to conduct quantitative assessment of accessibility to water resources, we have developed the computer system program, and analyzed the relationship between results of the calculation experiment and area specifications.
The fires following the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake brought considerable damages. Some papers pointed out that building collapse partly contributed to devastating disaster especially at the initial stage of fires. If building damages had been less serious, residents would have participated in fire-fighting more. Thus, we focused on the relationship between building damage and fire disaster, and this study proposed the assessment methods how seismic retrofitting could improve fire fighting conditions by residents' at the initial stage of fires.
Short-circuit faults on electrical cords exposed to external radiant heat are usually initiated by an arcing through charred insulating material or a physical (metal-to-metal) contact of hot conductors. In this study, various types of PVC and rubber-insulated power cords were exposed to external radiant heat by using a cone heater and initial electrical activities on the cords were investigated. Types of short-circuits depended upon the size and types of cords, materials of insulation, strength of external radiant heat, and duration of exposure to the heat flux. Physical shorts occurred on PVC-insulated cords at 20 kW/m2 when their conductors were twisted or pinched. PVC-insulated cords required 40 kW/m2 to start arcing shorts. Arcing shorts occurred on rubber-insulated cords at 20 kW/m2, though physical shorts did not occur at 40 kW/m2. The authors discussed on when and how short-circuit faults are produced on electrical cords under exposure to external radiant heat.