While the recent mortality rate of infants due to residential fires was lower than the average mortality rate of people of all ages, YPLL and LLE of infants were higher than that of other age groups. Children between the ages of 5 to 9 demonstrated the highest percentage of death due to fire among all cause of death in comparison with other age groups. Over 50% of cases of deaths of infants between the ages of 0 to 4 due to fire saw fires being started as a result of children ‘playing with fire’ and 90% of these particular cases involved ‘lighters’ and ‘matches.’ The number of male infants who died due to residential fires as a result of playing with fire surpassed that of female infants with a gender ratio of 3:1. The number of deaths of these infants peaked at the age of 3. According to these statistics, it can be stated that approximately half of the excess of deaths of children due to fire are the result of the children themselves playing with fire and/or being present at the scene of other children playing with fire. Approximately 60% of deaths of children at the age of 10 and under due to playing with fire occurred when no person who was older than the age of 10 was at home. The ratio of these cases that took place during the nighttime surpassed the ratio of those that occurred during the daytime. In 17 cases of residential fires as a result of children playing with fire in City A (with no cases of death), 65% of these cases saw no person who was older than 15 present at home. The number of cases where a guardian was asleep and did not realize that a child or children were playing with fire was 4. While the Japanese Maternal and Child Health Handbook (“Boshitecho”) provides reference information concerning accidents that are likely to occur to infants, the actual number of deaths between the ages of 1 to 4 due to residential fires has surpassed the number of deaths due to fall accidents that are described in the handbook, in recent years.
The effect of direction of spread, natural convection, sample size, void fraction, etc. on fire spread in the piled RDF (RDF fixed bed) was examined experimentally. RDF samples were produced cylindrically from general domestic garbage, and different size of sample ; 15.5 mm (D) × 37.1 mm (L) and 28.6 mm (D) × 50.5 mm (L) were used. Temperature change, temperature profile and spread rate of fire in the layer were measured. As a result of the experiment, when the bottom side in the layer is closed, the downward fire spreads faster than that of upward. And also, the fire spreads faster in the case of bottom side opened than it in the case of bottom side closed. It is found that the spread rate of smoldering increases with sample size or void fraction in natural convection. Though it is adiabatic for large void fraction in RDF layer, the smoldering continues by inflow air to the clearance. The effective thermal conductivity of powder packed bed was applied in RDF layer, and the effect of sample size, shape, void fraction, inflow air velocity on the fire spread was evaluated.
In recent years, biodiesel fuel (BDF) is widely noticed as the alternative diesel fuel. In this study, a detector tube was successfully developed for the screening of biodiesel fuel. The detector reagent is the mixture of phloroglucinol, sulfuric acid and silica gel. And it is enclosed in a glass tube. The detector reagent turns to red by reacting with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The detection limit of this tube is 0.05 % for liquid. This detector tube takes on positive reaction with BDF and vegetable oil, but negative reaction with diesel fuel. This detector tube is useful for the screening of biodiesel fuel.
July 14, 2017 Due to the maintenance‚following linking services will not be available on Jul 27 from 10:00 to 15:00 (JST)(Jul 27‚ from 1:00 to 6:00(UTC)). We apologize for the inconvenience. a)reference linking b)cited-by linking c)linking to J-STAGE with JOI/OpenURL
July 03, 2017 There had been a service stop from Jul 2, 2017, 8:06 to Jul 2, 2017, 19:12(JST) (Jul 1, 2017, 23:06 to Jul 2, 2017, 10:12(UTC)) . The service has been back to normal.We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause you.
May 18, 2016 We have released “J-STAGE BETA site”.
May 01, 2015 Please note the "spoofing mail" that pretends to be J-STAGE.