Database currently being applied to the fire modeling has been mostly based on the data on free burning. It means that the free burning data may result in under-predict of fire propagation and smoke toxicity. In fact, oxygen and thermal condition within a compartment fire is unsteady. Therefore, growth, flashover, fully-developed and decay period fire data is actually necessary depending on which period the fire research investigates. Fire data should be experimentally measured and input into the database to reconstruct the fire scene as many as possible. Time to ignition, mass loss rate, yields of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) of Douglas fir for each grain direction depended on the thermal and oxygen condition (XO2(volume fraction of oxygen) = 21-12.5 vol% and Φ (equivalence ratio) = 0 - 0.3) were investigated using the small scale Universal Flammability Apparatus (UFA) which reproduce thermal and oxygen condition in a compartment. Time to ignition of across the grain is twice as much as the one of along the grain. This is attributed to the difference of thermal conductivity for each grain direction. Mass loss rate of Douglas fir shows char layer above live Douglas fir relative to PMMA controls radiation feedback from flame to the fuel surface. Carbon monoxide yield as a function of oxygen concentration and equivalence ratio is different for across and along the grain as well as time to ignition.
To examine the effects on fire fighters' operating in areas compartmented with fire-resistant and fire protection glasses, heat-resistant crystallization glasses, hyper-strengthened fire-resistant glasses and multi-layer intumescent laminate glasses were studied in terms of impact resistance and radiant heat transmission during combustion tests following the procedures of ISO 834. At the beginning of our study, we defined the requirements of the compartment areas for fire operations. One is to limit the level of radiant heat to 2 kilowatts over the area (kW/m2), the second, to limit the surface temperatures of non-exposed surfaces to 100 degrees Celsius and the third, to ensure that the glass is not broken by the impacts common during the fire fighting operations, even when the fire fighting operations take 1 hour under the fierce combustion. Two kinds of impact were studied ; the one is the possible impact by fire fighters and their tools, and the other is the thermal stress caused by water splashed onto the glass during the fire fighting operations. As for heat-resistant crystallization glasses and hyper-strengthened fire-resistant glasses (integrity glasses), the surface temperatures on the non-exposed surface had reached 746 degrees Celsius and 699 degrees Celsius respectively. The level of radiant heat measured at a distance of 1 meter from the center of the glasses was 21.2 kW/m2 and 20.2 kW/m2 respectively, which appeared to severely affect the conditions for fire fighting operations. In comparison, the surface temperature for multi-layer intumescent laminate glasses(integrity and insulation glasses)were only 128 degrees Celsius and the level of heat radiation 0.15 kW/m2 (less than 1% of integrity glasses). Though we could not come to a conclusion about the resistance in terms of two types of impact because of too few experiments, multi-layer intumescent laminate glasses clearly are more desirable for fire fighters for their superior protection from dangerous levels of radiant heat.
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