The contraction of deep abdominal musculature increase the stiffness of lumbar spine via the thoracolumbar fascia, and has also been shown to increase intra-abdominal pressure, which has important roles to provide stability of posture and lumbar spine. We investigated age-related changes of lateral abdominal muscles, and postoperative changes of these during rest position, abdominal drawing-in maneuver (Draw-in) and head-lift exercise by using ultrasound imaging device. Thirty elderly men with spine disorder to undergo surgery (elderly patients: average 67 years old) and 10 healthy young men (young men: average 22 years old) as a control group were participated in this study. The thickness and echo intensity of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) were observed. The elderly patients were measured at before surgery, at 2 and 7 days after surgery. No age-related change was observed in the TrA muscle thickness at rest position, but the EO muscle thickness in elderly patients reduced 50 % compared with those in young men (p<0.05). In the elderly patients, the amount of adipose tissue and non-contractile tissue was increasing, which was observed at superficial abdominal muscles rather than deep abdominal muscles. Compared with before operation, the TrA muscle at rest position was significantly reduced by 17% at 7 days after surgery (p<0.05). The muscle thickness of the TrA and IO were increased by the Draw-in and head-lift after surgery (p<0.05). Our findings indicate that age-related qualitative and quantitative changes were observed in superficial abdominal muscles compared with deep abdominal muscles, and the Draw-in and head-lift were effective trainings of activation deep abdominal muscles rather than superficial. In addition, our results suggest that the TrA might be atrophy in elderly individuals after lumbar surgery in the early phase because of operative stress or reduced activity by postoperative bed rest.
The subject of learning the structure and function of a normal human body is an important and essential study for those aiming for a medical profession (para-medical). The human body consists of enormous cells and body fluids and stroma. By mixing them in various proportions, tissues, organs, and organ systems are created. Thus, the human body can be subdivided into individual layers. The tissues constituting the human body are roughly divided into four. That is, epithelial tissue, connective tissue (supporting tissue), muscle tissue, nerve tissue. Among them, connective tissue has been traditionally known to have various descriptions in classification methods, terms, and locations depending on textbooks, and due to poor specimens and models, etc., the connective tissue is a concept that is hard to understand for the student. To understand such anatomical terms, it is useful to dissect the living organism and observe it directly. Although animal dissection is a highly educational effort, it is avoided due to various circumstances. In this paper, the author proposes dissection of chicken wing as a method to promote understanding of connective tissue. By dissection of wings, more than half of the main connective tissue types can be observed. It is also effective to be able to feel connective tissue strongly or loosely connected between tissues through dissection and anatomic working. Therefore, chicken wings are very good biological materials for understanding the connective tissue.
Background: Monthly hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle play a key role in the development of acne vulgaris in women. However, previous studies were questionnaire surveys and lacked objective data. Additionally, the physiological function of skin declines in acne vulgaris patients but little is known about these physiological changes during the menstrual cycle. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the longitudinal changes in the abundance of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the skin of women during the menstrual cycle and the relationship between the abundance and skin physiological functions.
Materials and Methods: Six healthy women participated. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum secretion, stratum corneum (SC) hydration, and pH were measured, and skin bacteria (P. acnes) were collected from the left cheek every 2-3 days during the menstrual cycle.
Results: The relative abundance of P. acnes peaked after day 14 of the menstrual cycle and was rapidly decreased 2-3 days later. The relative abundance of P. acnes peaked on day 15 of the menstrual cycle in the subject who developed acne vulgaris, and the relative amount of Locus3 was simultaneously increased. The relative abundance of P. acnes was found to be correlated with TEWL (r=0.28, p<0.05) and SC hydration (r=-0.66, p<0.01).
Conclusion: Our findings show rapid changes in the number of P. acnes was occurred in the latter half of the menstrual cycle. Moreover, the physiological functions of skin were reduced when the number of P. acnes was increased. Therefore, improving the physiological function of skin may be necessary to prevent the development of acne vulgaris.
Relaxation of the stomach is achieved by inhibiting cholinergic myenteric neurons that connect with vagal preganglionic neurons. In addition, non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) myenteric neurons that were activated by the excitation of vagal preganglionic neurons induce relaxation. Our previous study demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) evokes relaxation in the proximal stomach. The relaxation evoked by electrical stimulation of the SLN was still observed after injection of atropine, albeit reduced in magnitude. NANC myenteric neurons activated by the excitation of vagal preganglionic neurons may function in laryngeal afferent-mediated gastric relaxation. The present study aimed to identify whether excitation of the vagal preganglionic neurons plays a role in the laryngeal afferent-mediated relaxation of the stomach using histological techniques. Excitation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) was detected by c-fos immunoreactivity after electrical stimulation of the SLN. Abdominal-projecting neurons were identified by intraperitoneal injection of the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG). Electrical stimulation of the left SLN induced c-fos expression in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), which includes the area postrema (AP), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the DMV, bilaterally. The paragigantocellular nucleus, the ventrolateral reticular nucleus and the area surrounding the nucleus ambiguus were also stained. In the DVC, FG-labeled cells were only observed in the DMV, which contains the cell bodies of the vagal preganglionic neurons. Cells labeled by both c-fos and FG were detected in the DMV. This suggested that the abdominal-projecting DMV neurons were excited in response to electrical stimulation of the SLN. To identify the gastric-projecting neurons, FG was injected into the anterior wall of the proximal stomach. Electrical stimulation of the SLN induced c-fos expression in FG-positive DMV neurons, but the number of FG-positive neurons was smaller than that after intraperitoneal injection. Most double-positive cells were located at the rostrocaudal middle level of the DMV. Additionally, immunofluorescence labelling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), c-fos and FG was performed to clarify whether c-fos- and FG-double-positive cells had nitric oxide (NO). FG was injected into the anterior wall of the stomach. Triple-positive cells for FG, c-fos and NOS were observed in the caudal DMV. As the NOS-containing preganglionic neurons in the DMV are considered “command NANC neurons”, NANC myenteric neurons may function in the gastric relaxation induced by SLN- afferent neurons. Taken together, excitation of SLN afferent neurons may induce gastric relaxation via NANC myenteric neurons in addition to cholinergic myenteric neurons.