Serine-proteases in blood allow the consequent chemical reactions, coagulation. The final step is the generation of thrombin, which quickly converts fibrinogen to fibrin. The resulted monomers are able to form fibrils, visible networks by self assembly. The velocity depends on the milieu, divalent cations, pH, ionic strength and temperature. Cadmium causes“itai-itai”disease and high body temperature might allow a poor organization of fibrils. Thus, we ask how the denaturation affects fibrin monomers causing morphological and functional disorders. To elucidate quantitative studies, 1) we measured the polymerization of fibrins by the optical absorbance at 350 nm. It is a logistic curve given by a difference equation consisting of a lag phase, growth phase and plateau. Thus, the slope of the curve is a reaction velocity (dy/dt), and the plateau is the density of the networks. 2) To understand this process, a computer simulation followed stochastic models such as percolation clustering, Sierpinski's gasket, and random street. The images thus obtained and those of normal and abnormal networks were assessed by fractal analyses using ImageJ. Our results suggest that fractal geometry accounted for structural characteristics of fibrils indicatingfaster the reactionvelocity, higher the D value. The y-intercepts were the density of networks. Both cadmium and heat exposure caused non-fibrous abnormal clusters of fibrins. 3) Then, we carried out computer-assisted image analyses of composite fibrils made by heat denatured (RITC) and normal fibrinogens (FITC) . The results suggest that fibrin networks are heterogeneous composing of denatured-, normal-fibrils and mixed ones, suggesting that abnormality could be compensated in part by normal fibrins.
There were no reports on the morphological study of the human mammary gland. Although the mammary gland in the rodent have been studied by light and electron microscopy. In this study, 141 samples of human milk were investigated by macroscopic, light microscopy and electron microscopic examinations in order to assess the quality of individual human milks. A drop of human milk (20μl) was dropped with in 20 μl oil-red solution or 1% osmium solution, and examined by macroscopic and light microscopy. Each lipid droplet was stained red or black respectively. Lipid droplets were varied in density according to individual human milk. About 30% of samples examined by us were small in number. Lipid droplets were spherical in shape and their sizes tended to become bigger with growth. Foremilk with yellow color was 1.5-3.0 μm, transitional milk with light yellow color was 2.0-6.0 μm, and mature milk with white color was 2.0-6.0 μm. The secretion consisted of lipid droplets was enveloped by the cell membrane, and rarely contained casein granules and rough endoplasmic reticulum, no fusion of lipid droplets were found. It was concluded that the oil-red osmium staining method was simple and very useful for assessment of human milk.
This study reviewed the efficacy of a foot bath using lavender oil. The subjects were eight males, so that the confounding effect of the autonomic imbalance associated with the menstrual cycle was eliminated. The observation items were the HF component of HRV (a parasympathetic nervous activity index) / skin surface temperature / skin depth temperature / blood pressure, and subjective evaluation. We compared the effects of a foot bath in water containing lavender oil (experimental group) and a foot bath in water not containing lavender oil (a control group), and measured by measuring the above parameters from 15 minutes before the foot bath, until 30 minutes after a foot bath (the foot bath itself lasted for 10 minutes) . Increase of the superior extremity skin temperature after a foot bath during a foot bath significantly in an experimental group in several minutes was noted during and for several minutes after the foot bath. Furthermore, the increase of the superior extremity skin temperature was maintained for longer in comparison with that in the control group. On the other hand, the blood pressure decreased significantly in the experimental group for rest about 25-30 minutes. The HF component of HRV increased significantly in the experimental group at 20 minutes. Therefore, our results suggested that a foot bath in water containing lavender oil enhanced parasympathetic nervous activity.
We conducted two experiments to investigate the effects of iron deficiency anemia on growth rate. In Experiment I, the iron-deficient group received a diet with 3.6 ppm iron citrate and the control group received a diet with 303 ppm iron citrate. Pair-fed rats received a control diet in amounts equivalent to that consumed by the iron-deficient group. Experiment 2 included an additional iron-deficient control (IDC) group that received the iron-deficient diet for six weeks followed by three weeks of the control diet. Growth associated with a decrease in food intake was significantly retarded in the iron-deficient and pair-fed rats than control rats. However, the ratio of daily diet intake to growth in the iron-deficient group was more than that of the control groups. The plasma leptin concentration in the iron-deficient group was significantly lower than the pair fed group in Experiment 1. We could not fmd that iron-deficient rats have a poor appetite and increase the plasma leptin level. In experiment 2, the iron-deficient status of the IDC group resulted in poor growth, hyperlipidemia and anemia, but their growth increased by the end of the experiment. The plasma leptin concentration (ng/ml) in the control, iron-deficient and IDC groups was 1.37±0.27, 0.90±0.14, and 2.12±0.53, respectively. The leptin concentration in the control and IDC groups, but not in the iron-deficient group, was siginificantly correlated with fat weight. Our results suggest that decreased growth rate may be due to malnutrition of the iron-deficient diet, and the effect of increased energy consumption. The decreased leptin concentration and the lack of a significant correlation between leptin concentration and fat weight in the iron-deficient rats may be necessary to maintain growth.
This study is to elucidate ultrastructural changes of the cardiovascular system by excess Nacl ingestion. Dahl salt-sensitive rat and Dahl salt- resistant rat were provided 4% NaCl diet for 4 weeks. Cardiac myocytes in Dahl (S) were expanded considerably and arranged irregularly. Intercalated disks also showed an abnormal configuration, in addition, gap junction decreased. Ultrastructural changes in Dahi (S) were suggested abnormal of conducting system in the cardiac muscular tissue.