An electronic equipment advances making to high performance and the price cutting based on the demand of downsizing of the market. As for integrated circuit (IC), correspondence to making to high performance and the miniaturization is requested. IC is mounted as parts by using the substrate. We introduce the case where the microscope is used to develop the method of improving the material development and reliability of this jisso material. The following two examples are given about the material development. Examination of deposition mechanism of electrolysis copper foil. Mechanism examination how to make the shape of copper pattern. The following example is given about the development of the method of improving reliability. Examination of growth mechanism of tin whisker by causing short-circuit of the pattern that becomes a fatal defect.
TEM/STEM is a powerful tool in evaluation of ceramics materials due to its high spatial and temporal resolution. Performances of devices using ceramics materials are affected by its electric and chemical structure at nanometer scale. In this manuscript, we will describe applications of TEM/STEM for ferroelectric domain analysis, atomic characterization at grain boundary, and in-situ observations of sintering process of BaTiO3 ceramics.
With progress of recent transmission electron microscope, daily TEM evaluation of the advanced industrial materials which tend to be diversified, complicated and minimized has been included not only morphological observation but also composition, chemical and electronic structure analysis in the company laboratory. However, to evaluate so-called soft matter such as polymers, biological samples and those compounds there are a lot of additional problems to peripheral techniques, i.e. sample preparation, electronic staining and so on. Additionally it is also a big problem for soft matter to suppress electron bombardment damage. In this paper, we show some TEM applications of soft matter in the company laboratory. Using several approaches which include focused ion beam method, cryo-EELS and transmission electron micro-tomography, we evaluate polymer compounds and catalysts in fuel cell electrodes. We also show current problem to study soft matter and future expectation.
Recently, high performance SEMs, such as an FE-SEM and a low voltage SEM, are widely used and it is expected to apply them to advanced steel materials structure analysis appropriately. In the steel material analysis, however, old fashioned techniques are still used in sample preparations and image observations, therefore those high performance SEMs cannot demonstrate their special powers. In this article, a new sample preparation method with argon plasma by RF-GD, and a high resolution observation method for nano-scale size fine structure with low take-off angle backscattered electrons are presented as new techniques by which the recent high performance SEMs are utilized for the steel materials analysis.
With the advance of analytical technology developed in 20th for mainly electronics printing technology becomes to be understood as high-speed process that makes nano structure in fluid ink develop to macro functional texture of the solid product.The printing technology is now expected to apply to nano fabrication process of nanoelectronics or biotechnology in 21st. However, the nano technologies in printing process are hidden because they still depend on human tacit knowing cultivated human sense and experience. In order to make solutions for those nano processing and succeed them to the next generation, we have to make new step of “seeing” and then “knowing” for “controlling” throughout nano to macro evolving behavior in material processing, Those technologies are important to develop real-time process analysis technologies, to accumulate various knowledge stocks of nano dynamics and to estimate modeling of what is happening in the process to make it happen for the development of the 21st nano manufacturing. That will enable us new 21st science harmonized with human sense.In this paper the solution proposal system is presented for the printing process problems trough intuitive visualization of multi functional phenomena by microscopy and of invisible fast phenomena by high-speed video imaging, and through dynamic analysis of molecular behavior by time-resolved spectroscopy.
X-ray diffraction microscopy is a novel technique to reconstruct sample image from the coherent x-ray diffraction pattern. An iterative phase retrieval method on a computer is used for image reconstruction. It requires no lens, and can achieve high spatial-resolution overcoming the limitation of conventional lens-based x-ray microscopy. It is especially effective for nondestructive measurement of internal-structure for thick objects utilizing high penetration power of x-rays. It is an ideal form of x-ray phase contrast microscopy, and high contrast can be achieved also for transparent objects, such as unstained cell organelles. Moreover, coherent diffraction around a Bragg reflection of a nano-crystal can also provide deformation field map. Worldwide research of x-ray diffraction microscopy using state-of-the-art undulator radiation is rapidly growing. Furthermore, the utilization of the next generation x-ray source, x-ray free electron laser, for this technique is receiving increasing attention. Here, I review the principle and the status of x-ray diffraction microscopy. In addition, I also mention the status of electron diffraction microscopy.
Recently, some kinds of cancer drug therapy have become a so-called “tailor-made therapy” based on biological characters of cancer cells. Especially, in hormone dependent breast cancer, only ER (estrogen receptor) and/or PgR (progesterone receptor) positive cases are indicative to endocrine therapy. In addition, “trastuzumab”, a monoclonal antibody agent against to HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), is effective to only HER2 positive breast cancer patients. To determine the indication of these drugs, ER, PgR and HER2 protein expression of breast cancer cells are examined by immunohistochemistry and HER2/neu gene amplification is evaluated by ISH (including FISH, SISH and CISH) methods. This trend is thought to be a fruit of numerous fundamental studies and ideal connections are produced by relationship between fundamental research and applied medical practice.
Principles and application of Lorentz microscopes are presented. First, the mechanism of the so-called Lorentz lens which is an objective lens with weak magnetic field at the specimen position is explained. Then observation modes of Lorentz microscopy of domain structure are presented. It is shown that the defocusing method and in-focus method are useful to locate domain walls and domains, respectively. Phase information analysis with the transport of intensity equation and scanning Lorentz microscopy are also noted. Finally, various kinds of magnetizing systems are explained. As a simple magnetizing method, the specimen tilt, by which a part of the magnetic field of the objective lens can be introduced in the specimen plane, is explained. Also a conventional magnetizing system consisting of a specimen holder with an electromagnet is explained. Furthermore, by installing a sharp magnetic needle made of a permanent magnet in a piezodriving holder, dynamic observation of nucleation process of magnetization reversal in Nd-Fe-B is carried out. On the other hand, by utilizing an alternating current magnetizing system, dynamic motion of domain walls in electrical steel sheets is studied by Lorentz microscopy. It is observed that the domain walls are strongly pinned at the precipitates.
Image processing by mathematical morphology is a powerful tool for quantitative analyses of geometric features in a variety of images. We describe a practical method to extract and present various structural features included in biological images for further evaluation.
Electron microscope magnifies an object and exposes fine structures before the naked eyes. Therefore, a great deal of effort has been put into getting an improved data by inventing a new technique of observation or by improving an instrument. On the other hand, useful information that cannot be recognized by just looking a raw data may be obtained by processing the raw data. However, data processing should not create information that does not exist in the original data. In this report I would like to introduce some beneficial image processing techniques that extract information in the data to be recognized by human being. Such a processing is a kind of double-edged sword, however, and a deep knowledge on the object will be required to correctly explain the result. I hope many of clever readers of this article will try such data processing to tackle their difficult problem.
We determined the atomic structures of two MAPEG family proteins, microsomal glutathione transferase 1 and mirosomal prostaglandin E synthase 1, by electron crystallography. Here we present the structural features of the proteins and discuss their relationship with the functions. The two membrane proteins are enzymes; the former can accept various substrates for the catalysis, while the latter has the specific substrate, prostaglandin H2. Based on the structural analysis of both proteins, we propose the mechanism that could explain the functional divergence. In addition, using the structural study of MAPEG family proteins as an example, we introduce the current status of electron crystallography, from two-dimensional crystallization to data analysis. This technique needs more research and development compared with X-ray crystallography, but it has unique advantages and is one of powerful approaches for the structural analysis of membrane proteins, which is now easy to try.
Glaucocystophytes are protists that contain cyanobacteria-like endosymbionts called cyanelles, which are thought to be evolutionary intermediates between free-living autotrophs and chloroplasts. Cyanelles retain primitive feature such as a peptidoglycan wall. We isolated a full-length prokaryotic plastid division gene, FtsZ, from the glaucocystophyte alga Cyanophora paradoxa (CpFtsZ-cy). Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that CpFtsZ-cy forms a ring-like structure at the division plane of cyanelles. In addition, an FtsZ arc and a split FtsZ ring emerge during the early and late stages of cyanelle division, respectively. The FtsZ arc and FtsZ ring formed even when peptidoglycan synthesis was inhibited by ampicillin. Thus, the formation of the FtsZ arc and FtsZ ring is the earliest sign of cyanelle division, followed by constriction and septum formation. In this study, we also investigated the dynamics of the surface of dividing cyanelles using a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The resulting micrographs show that shallow furrows form on the surface of the kidney-shaped cyanelles. A shallow furrow forms where the FtsZ arc exists beneath the surface. Based on the results of FE-SEM and TEM, we concluded that an internal mechanical force related to septum formation, rather than an external force, generates the force that constricts the cyanelle.
Ionic liquid is organic salt that keep liquid state even at room temperature. Its negligible pressure prevents any vaporization even in vacuum condition, implying that the liquid, which is put in a vacuum chamber, can be observed by an electron microscope. Its attempt using a scanning electron microscope allowed us to know that ionic liquid was not charged at all during its observation, indicating that ionic liquid behaves like electronically conducting liquid in electron microscopy. The possibility of introducing the conducting liquid to electron microscopy is yielding several techniques; easily putting electronically conductivity to insulating materials, observation of specimen with wetted condition, in situ observation of chemical reactions taking place in ionic liquid.
Interfaces and surfaces of crystals have peculiar electronic structures, caused by the disorder in periodicity, providing the functional properties, which cannot be observed in a perfect crystal. In the vicinity of the interfaces/surfaces, dopants or impurities are often segregated, and they play a crucial role in the material properties. We call these dopants “function providing elements”, which have the characteristics to change the macroscopic properties of the materials drastically. To obtain a guideline for designing material by the atomic scale modification, an understanding of the atomistic mechanism for the functional properties is required as well as precise measurement of the present state of trace elements segregated in the nanoscale region. In recent nano-characterization technologies, there has been remarkable progress by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) utilizing the spherical aberration (Cs) corrector. The technique enables us not only to identify the location of the dopants but also to analyze the local electronic state for the single atomic column on grain boundaries and interfaces. In this paper, we focus on grain boundaries and interfaces of various ceramics, to which “function providing elements” are doped, and introduce the latest results of the microstructure analyzed in detail by STEM.
Diffractive imaging using a diffraction pattern and a computer recently attracts much attention in material science. The innovative microscopy using an electron beam shows the direction of imaging with atomic-scale super resolution for non-crystalline specimens. This short letter presents the principle, the state of the related fields, examples of experimental results, and future researches of the method.