日本健康学会誌
Online ISSN : 2432-6720
Print ISSN : 2432-6712
ISSN-L : 2432-6712
83 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の3件中1~3を表示しています
巻頭言
資料
  • Yuko S. YOSHIMOTO, Ako IMAI, Shimako MUTO, Junko FUJIKURA, Hiromi KATU ...
    2017 年 83 巻 2 号 p. 41-53
    発行日: 2017/03/31
    公開日: 2017/05/25
    ジャーナル フリー

    本研究は,日本・タイ国児童を対象に「適切な食品・食事の選択・組み合わせ」スキルの向上を目指した,視覚対話システムの超鏡(HyperMirror)活用の食育プログラムの教育効果と超鏡の食育への適用性を検討することであった.超鏡は,遠隔地の相手像と自己の鏡像とを合成し,同一画面上に表示して相手と同室感覚を作りだすことができる.

    食育プログラムは,前後比較デザインを用いて,2006年(テーマ:食品群から食品を選択する)と2007年(テーマ:食品群から食品選択し,栄養バランスの良い朝食を計画する)に実施した.また,初回の食育の学習内容を対象児童に保持させるために教育支援教材(ニュースレター)を,2回目の食育授業実施前まで定期的に配布した.対象者は,2006年と2007年の両年とも食育授業に参加した日本都市部(70名)とタイ国都市部(21名)の児童(2006年時9歳から10歳の小学生5年生)である.

    各年の食育授業終了後に学習環境調査を実施した.また,2007年の遠隔食育授業の約3週間後に食育プログラムの“影響評価"(適切な食品・食事選択に関する知識,意識,および行動の変容)と“行動目標評価"(目標1:適切な量と食品の組合せの食事を摂取できる,目標2:外国の食環境・食文化を理解し,興味・関心をもつことができる,目標3:自分の食生活に関心をもつことができる)を実施し,検討をおこなった.

    超鏡の学習環境については両年平均で日本3.8,タイ国4.4で児童の評価は高値であった.また両国の児童に適切な食品・食事選択に関する知識,意識,および行動の変容が確認された.行動目標1は両国の児童の50%以上が「できる」と回答した.行動目標2と3はタイ児童のほうが日本児童より「できる」の回答率が高く,教育支援教材による効果もみられた.

    本報告では超鏡による食育の教育効果と適用性が確認できた.

原著
  • ライフ・ライン・メソッドを用いた心理的状態の変化と関連要因についての縦断的研究
    平野 優子
    2017 年 83 巻 2 号 p. 55-69
    発行日: 2017/03/31
    公開日: 2017/05/25
    ジャーナル フリー

    Purpose: It is well documented that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients experience significant suffering upon loss of motor function; however, there has been extremely little study of how such patients face their disease and cope with it. The life-line method is a useful non-verbal, visual interview method for retrospectively assessing life experience over time. Further, longitudinal research is required to improve validity and deepen understanding of subjects. The purpose of the current study is to use elucidate psychological changes over time and related factors in ALS patients under Tracheostomy, Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (TPPV).

    Methods: Questionnaires were sent 3 years following the previous survey to 22 ALS patients using TPPV selected in a manner to ensure varied background factors. These questionnaires were followed by semi-structured interviews at their residences or other locations based on questionnaire answers.

    Results:The psychological status of all subjects deteriorated after onset, but subsequent patterns diverged into main patterns: steady improvement following the initial deterioration, first signs of recovery while still in the “worsened or stagnated” state, initial recovery followed by a second deterioration, and a persistent “worsened or stagnated” state. The following qualitative factor domains affected psychological status for 3 years in both positive and negative ways: lifestyle factors (the most influential), personal relationships, disease coping, physical impairment and symptoms, roles, experience, and economic factors. These seven domains were divided into 12 positive or negative factors each, some of which were in opposition to each other. Analysis revealed different factors operating on each of the main psychological status patterns. The recovery of psychological status was spurred by adequate medical or nursing services, maintaining sources of enjoyment or meaning, and ascribing positive meaning to disease and cognitive coping; the initial recovery was spurred by support from other people; the recovery was impeded by worsening physical impairment and symptoms, and inadequate medical or nursing services; the initial recovery was impeded by inadequate medical or nursing services, and anxiety about caregiving burden on family.

    Conclusions: It is inevitable that ALS patients using TPPV will experience psychological fluctuations. Given this fact, aiding in the task of coping and re-constructing their lives consists of mitigating factors which impede psychological recovery, and enhancing factors which promote recovery.

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