The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of body fat distribution in Japanese young women of various somatotypes.
Subjects were 300 female university students who were living in a dormitory. They were classified into the following six groups according to their BMI and percentage of body fat: low-weight group, sham low-weight group, normal group, pre-masked obesity group, masked obesity group, and obesity group. Their body weight, the amount of total and regional body fat, and the level of visceral fat were measured by BIA.
The data showed that as the somatotype of the subjects became obese, the ratio of their body fat in the lower part of the body to that of the upper part of the body was significantly high. The percentage of the body fat of their arms and trunk against the total amount of the body fat was significantly high as well. In contrast, the percentage of the body fat in their legs against the total amount of the body fat was significantly low.
These results showed that there was a difference in the distribution of body fat according to one’s somatotype. As one’s somatotype became obese, the body fat tended to distribute in the trunk, while as the somatotype became low-weight, the body fat tended to distribute in the legs.
For evidence-based nutrition counseling, we conducted a systematic review on the relationship between breast- or bottle feeding and oral conditions/functions of infants. We searched peer-reviewed research papers published between 1980 and 2017 by five literature databases. Two authors independently examined their titles, abstracts and texts, and 45 literatures that met the inclusion criteria were extracted. After that, we manually searched references cited in the adopted articles. As a result, it was suggested that weaning at 12 to 18 months of age, as recommended in the “lactation and weaning guide book,” reduced the risk of dental caries. As for dentition and masticatory ability, breastfeeding or use of baby bottle should be stopped by this time point as well.