Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social communication difficulties, as well as restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests including those resulting from hyper- or hypoactive sensory input. The characteristics of the symptoms of females with ASD are not well-studied since the previous studies were conducted mainly on males with ASD. In particular, it is unclear how women’s menstruation and psychosomatic symptoms may influence the daily living activities of females with ASD, when they co-occur with their ASD symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ASD symptoms and premenstrual symptoms on daily living activities in women with ASD based on the patients’ own experience.
[Methods] We conducted semi-structured interviews on seven women with ASD and analyzed the changes in psychosomatic symptoms experienced before menstruation and their effects on daily living activities using a qualitative descriptive research method.
[Results] Based on the analysis, the following three categories were elucidated: “premenstrual symptoms that become more severe due to the enhancement and appearance of hyperesthesia,” “difficulty in daily living caused by worsening of premenstrual symptoms,” and “self-management ability in symptomatic treatment and life improvement.”
[Conclusion] Before menstruation, women with ASD experienced a unique physical disorder due to hyperesthesia, a characteristic of disability. These affected daily and social activities, causing difficulty in their lives. It was revealed that the subjects had created a way of dealing with premenstrual symptoms by their own ingenuity and advancing their self-understanding; however, they wanted to be better understood by people around them.
In order to investigate the relationship between infants’ beverage consumption and guardians’ worries about their children’s food intake, infant’s characteristics and body size, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted for 300 guardians of 18-month infants at dental health checkups held by city health centers in Tokyo. We asked them about consumption frequency and amount of “100% vegetable juice and fruit juice (hereafter, 100% juice)” and “sweetened beverage like ion water and lactobacillus beverage.” Infant’s characteristics and body size were not different between with and without consumption of these beverages. Guardians of infants with consumption of 100% juice were significantly more worried about infant feeding in 3 out of 12 items such as preferring sweetened beverages and sweets to meal. Because dietary patterns in early life could be the basis for future dietary preference, it is necessary to provide information about appropriate beverage intake.
This study is aimed at reviewing literatures to examine assistance issues for foreign nurse candidates under the Economic Partnership Agreement(EPA) from the perspectives of providing assistance in “adapting to the educational environment,” “learning nursing practices” and “passing the national examination.” Literature search has been conducted on the Japan Medical Abstracts Society database, CiNii and CINAHL, covering literatures issued from 2008 to 2018 and using keywords “EPA,” “nursing,” “Japan,” “nurse,” “Economic Partnership Agreement,” “Philippines,” “Indonesia” and “Vietnam.” The search was narrowed down to 15 literatures, which were reviewed closely in the matrix approach with a focus on assistance for foreign nurse candidates under the EPA to extract examples of assistance for foreign nurse candidates in line with the main theme of this paper. Required assistance for foreign nurse candidates included enhancing Japanese language learning to gain fluency to pass the national exam, providing public support to establish common consensus about multicultural issues and nursing work differences between countries, and drawing up an educational program and guidelines.