目的：諸外国における学校を拠点とし学童・思春期の児童生徒を対象とした栄養・食教育の動向を把握することを目的とした． 方法：Medline（PubMed）を用い，検索式は “Education” [MeSH] AND (“food habits” [MeSH] OR “food preferences” [MeSH]) AND (“school” OR “school-based” OR “cafeteria”) とし，6-18歳が対象で過去10年間に英語で報告された論文を検索した．325件の表題及び抄録を精査し，本研究の採択基準を満たさない230件を除外した．さらに本文を精査し，最終的に27件の介入研究（小学校17件，中学・高校10件）を採用した． 結果：小学校では児童に加え，家族，学校の教師やカフェテリア等へも働きかけている報告が多い．中学・高校では，生徒のみや生徒と学校の組み合わせが多かった．食行動の評価指標として，食行動の回数，頻度，スコアや食物・栄養素の摂取量があり，質問紙調査法，観察法等が用いられていた．小学校では児童，家族，学校のうち複数に働きかけている方が介入効果がある傾向が見られたが，中学・高校ではそのような傾向はなかった． 結論：学校における栄養・食教育では，児童生徒の年齢に合わせ，教育的アプローチと環境的アプローチを組み合わせることが食行動の良好な変化につながることが示唆された．
Objective: To clarify the relationship of the cigarette smoking status with other unhealthy lifestyle habits in Japanese employees. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 4009 males and 1620 females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the cigarette smoking status and each survey item of the lifestyle habits after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of the duration of smoking cessation with other lifestyle habits. Results: In both genders, compared to nonsmokers, current smokers drank more sugar-sweetened beverages (odds ratio 2.01 in males, 0.93 in females), preferred strong flavors (OR 2.23 in males, 1.64 in females), added soy sauce to cooked meals (OR 3.02 in males, 1.92 in females), skipped breakfast (OR 2.54 in males, 5.42 in females), and drank more alcohol(OR 2.28 in males, 3.24in females). The current smokers ate snacks, fruit, soy beans and milk products less frequently. Particularly in males, current smokers took less regular exercise, had less physical activity and more sleep problems. The duration of smoking cessation in males was significantly and positively related with physical activity (β=0.052, p<0.01) and was inversely related with the score for undesirable eating habits (β=−0.0160, p<0.01) and alcohol consumption (β=−0.089, p<0.01, adjusted R2=0.124). Conclusion: Current smokers had multiple unhealthy lifestyle habits compared to nonsmokers in both genders. In addition, the duration of smoking cessation in males appeared to be significantly related to a change in unhealthy lifestyle habits.
Authors served with the Nagasaki University Medical Relief Team providing medical relief and health services at Terano Kyodojo evacuation shelter at Otsuchi, Iwate Prefecture, an area severely affected by the massive tsunamni following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The relief team provided medical consultations at a temporary clinic in March 2011, in collaboration with a local general practitioner. The affected area has been characterized by its high level of population aging, which was also reflected in the age composition of the evacuees at the shelter: 38% of evacuees were aged 65 or older. Many patients presented to the clinic requesting routine medication refills for their chronic medical conditions (e.g. hypertention, diabetes, heart diseases and asthma). However, information on their medications had been lost in many cases, and the identification of medicines was thus a critical task. An increasing trend of symptoms apparently due to stress (e.g. insomnia) was also observed. We supported the introduction of infection control measures to prevent possible outbreak of infectious acute gastroenteritis. While most evacuees had experienced extremely stressful circumstances and profound loss, a functional community had already been developed in the shelter. The evacuees were divided into groups, and the group leaders held meetings to share information and to set the necessary shelter rules. Evacuees shared chores and conducted regular physical exercise together. New infection control measures were also discussed among the group leaders, and implemented only after reaching agreement. We believe collaboration with communities will be critical in planning and implementing future public health and restoration efforts in the affected areas.