Research in the past two decades from about 50 studies has revealed that the effectiveness of nutrition education for children can be improved by the following conditions: 1. The program should focus on behaviors and influences on behavior, and not just on general knowledge. 2. The educational strategies should be directly relevant to the focus on behavior and should be based on appropriate theory and research. 3. The educational methods should emphasize all three domains of learning: (a) cognitive concepts and analytical skills appropriate for cognitive developmental level that are needed to carry out the behaviors (b) affective processes such as values, emotional meanings of foods, and motivations behind the behaviors; (c) a behavioral change method including self-assessment, setting goals, practicing behavioral skills; receiving feedback; reinforcements for achieving goals. 4. The education program should devote adequate time and intensity to nutrition education. 5. The family should be involved for younger children and peers for older children. 6. The school environment should be changed for foster healthful eating. 7. It is also desirable for the larger community to be involved. Most of the recent studies are directed at dietary behaviors that reduce risk of heart disease (lower fat and higher fiber diets) or of cancer (diets high in fruits and vegetables) . These studies are reviewed and a case study presented. At Teachers College, Columbia University, however, we emphasize behaviors that are healthful not only for the person but also for the ecological environment as well. We encourage children to become“earth friends.”Two case studies are described that use classroom cooking and lessons to help elementary school children and their families appreciate the importance of considering the environment as well as personal health in making food choices.