1. Diffractaic acid is isolated from Usnea diffracta Vain. By using the column chromatography in chloroform and methanol (9 : 1) solvent system. 2. When diffractaic acid obtained from Usnea diffracta is developed in TLC by using acidic solvent, such as hexane, ether, formic acid (5 : 4 : O. 7), a small spot of barbatic acid can be observed with the large spot of diffractaic acid. 3. The NMR spectra of diffractaic acid and barbatic acid are measured in the solvent of acetone-d_6. Two signals of phenyl ring proton were broard. The integral ratio of 2-0-CH_3 proton and 4-0-CH_3 proton of diffractaic acid is 2.3 to 3.7. These facts lead us to deduce that the following rapid equilibrium between diffractaic acid and barbatic acid is present : R-Ome+H_20→R-OH+MeOH. 4. The -Ome of diffractaic acid is partially substituted by H_20 to form barbatic acid in the acidic condition, and the equilibrium between both acids can be established. Barbatic acid can be converted into 4-O-demethylbarbatic acid in some acidic conditions. The transfer of the chemical equilibrium is accelated in the presence of acidic catalists. The amount of the final products (barbatic acid or 4-0-demethylbarbatic acid) is changeable according to the acidic condition : 25% of the diffractaic acid is changed into barbatic acid under the presence of alminium chloride ; 50% under the presence of sulphuric acid. Furthermore, in the presence of hydrobromic acid, all diffractaic acid is converted into 4-0-demethylbarbatic acid (100%) probably through the intermediate substance, barbatic acid. 5. Even though without acidic catalysts, the equilibrium between diffractaic acid and barbatic acid is established, especially in acetone solvent. Thus, we consider that diffractaic acid itself plays as an acidic catalyst because diffractaic acid has a carboxylic acid. 6. Recently, most lichenologists used the acidic TLC solvent system, such as hexane, ether, formic acid (5 : 4 : O. 7), pastuka mixture, etc. Although acidic substances can be useful for the prevention to the tailing of some phenolic substances such as depsides or depsidones, they may accelate to form the demethyl substances of some O-methyl sub-stances. In such cases, dynamic behaviors to demethyl substances might be observed in some laboratory conditions, especially in solution.
In addition to the light microscope, the scanning-electron microscope was used to examine hyphal tissues of the following 7 lichen species : Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein., Cetraria oakesiana Tuck., Cetrelia cetrarioides (Duby) Culb. & C. Culb., Leptogium menziesii Mont., Parmelia acetabulum (Neck.) Duby, Roccella fuciformis (L.) DC., and Umbilicaria vellea (L.) Ach. The following 6 types of hyphal tissues are recognized : paraplectenchyma, scleroplectenchyma, chalaroplectenchyma, prosoplectenchyma, pallisadoplectenchyma, and serioplectenchyma. Scleroplectenchyma can be divided into two subtypes : one is formerly known as paraplectenchyma. Some prosoplectenchyma with narrow lumina and strongly thickened walls, can be distinguished as sclero-prosoplectenchyma. For the practical object, 6 plectenchyma types with some subtypes are arranged as the following preliminary key to plectenchymas : Preliminary key to lichen hyphal tissues 1. The separate hyhae not distinguishable 2. Cells almost isidiametric, round to polyhedral with wide lumina, outer cell wall poorly developed to form membrane 3. Cells with wide lumina and non-thickened walls, polyhedral to mutual pressure … PARAPLECTENCHYMA 3. Cells with wide lumina and thickened walls, round… SCLEROPLEOTENCHYMA TYPE A 2. Cells rounding up, round to more or less elongated, with narrow lumina and strongly thickened walls ; with outer cell walls developed to form as if intercellular material 4. Hyphal tissue not steined … SCLEROPLECTENCHYMA TYPE B 4. Hyphal tissue brownish steined … PLATYSMOID 1. The separate hyphae distinguishable 5. Hyphae running in all directions, not parallel 6. Hyphae with their walls not united, Iumina wide with intercellular spaces … CHALAROPLECTENCHYMA 6. Hyphae with their walls united lumina small, without intercellular spaces … PROSOPLECTENCHYMA 5. Hyphae running in one-direction, parallel 7. Hyphae more or less clavate, with more or less intercellular spaces, not cohering, (hypha running rectangular to the thallus surface) … PALLISADOPLECTENCHYA 7. Hyphae not clavate, without intercellular spaces, more or less cohering 8. Hyphae with wide lumina and non-thcikened walls, not strongly cohering … SERIOPLECTENCHYMA 8. Hyphae with narrow lumina and strongly thickened walls, strongly cohering … SCLERO-PROSOPLECTENCHYMA
The body activity level in the hospital life of the patients who were fractured in the lower extremities and in the course of their rehabilitation training were measured from the indication of their H. R (Heart Rate). The following results were obtained ; 1) In arranging the daily life of the patients in the hospital, they spent seventy percent of their time on entertaining themselves. Next they spent time in keeping themselves in order, and then the time for, meals. 2) H. R in the hospital life was variable from 65 beat/min to 90,but rarely overpassed 100 beat/min. 3) H. R in the rehabilitation training never passed 120 beat/min. The results above lead us consider that the body act vity level of the patients fractured in the legs is lower than the level of the training burden of the health aiming at the maintenance and the improvement of the respiration and circulatory functions, Then it is necessary to set a program for the general conditioning exercise in addition to the local physical therapy.
In order to measure muscles more objectively and more precisely, we manufactured for trial the almighty equipment to measur muscle strength and examined its special character. The results were as following. 1) The amount of distortation calculated from the measurment by this equipment was in straight proportion to be amount of load under 0-100kg. 2) The quality oe reemergence was less than 2% in the range of error. Therefore, this equipment was found to be accurate and trustworthy for the measurement of the muscle strength. Since this equipment transforms the minute amount of deformation in iron pipe to muscle power, it can obtain an accurate and equal Isometric contraction in the muscle. At the same time as it can get the passing of thetime, it is possible to estimate the additional physiological functions such as the working amount of each muscle, contraction speed and so on.
We made an inquiry about the development of the training of the physical therapist and the working conditions of the graduates of Kochi Institute of Rehabilitation. The good points of the training can be seen in the increase of applicants for the entrance andthe high rate of passing the state license test. On the other hand, it is desirable to find a way to stop the increasing number of students who fail in the test and stay in the same grade. As for the working conditions of the graduates, most of them work in private hospitals or in social welfare facilites. They don't seem to be satisfied with their salaries and fringe benefits in their study and training. The best way for the training school to go on is not by training in the profession, but it should change its character and become like a college and it should stress on the need to study.