The scanning electron-microscopic studies on the fine structures of spore walls of Leucolejeunea unciloba were done in the present study. Summarizing the results mentioned above are as follows : the following structures of spore walls are similar to those of Frullaniaceae as far as known so far : 1) mature spores are multicellular, 2) foramina are scattered on the surface, 3) columnar protuberances extend from the bottom of the foramina (stellate papilla in the optical microscopic view) ; among the Frullaniaceae species, the fine structures of spore walls of Leucolejeunea unciloba are closely near to those of Frullania mayebarae in the minute globose mamilla densely covering all the spore walls, including the foramina-bottom surface and the columnar protuberances arranged in double concentric circles (in this point, somewhat similar to Frullania tamarisci subsp.moniliata, too) . No study of the fine structures of spore walls of Lejeuneaceae has been obtained as yet, and, therefore, the author can not determine the taxonomic relationships between this species and the other members or groups of Lejeuneaceae from the results of this study. The author, however, would like to discuss this problem (as well as already partly done on Frullaniaceae) after more observations of many species of Lejeuneaceae will be made in the future.
Microbial enzymes have more superior properties than any other enzyme formed by higher plants or animals. Naringinase and flavonoid-glucosidase which remove one of the bitter substances in citrus fruits were inductively obtained by the addition of a small amount of substrate or its related substances to the culture media of a strain of Aspergillus niger. Naringinase and three kinds of flavonoid-glucosidases were purified or crystallized from this culture extract, and their modes of actions on several substrates were discussed in detail. On the utilization of these enzymes obtained at the step of the fundamental experiment to manufacture citrus fruit juice, marmalade and canned orange, these enzymatic properties were improved by the skilful application of the induction of enzyme, so that both enzymes became more suitable for use. To cite an instance, glucose in citrus juice hardly inhibited the hydrolysis of naringin to prunin by naringinase, but did inhibit the hydrolysis of prunin to naringenin by flavonoid glucosidase. The inhibition was increased with increase in the ratio of naringinase to flavonoid glucosidase. Addition of lactose to the medium stimulated the production of flavonoid glucosidase by Aspergillus niger, and the enzyme thus prepared was hardly inhibited by glucose.