The present study examines whether the children's morality affects their objective understanding of conditions in early childhood, and whether the relations are influenced by their sex or grade. The morality with respect to the judgment of right and wrong was classified by the judgment on the basis of a child's intention or results of the damage. In addition, the objective understanding of conditions was constructed by their own false belief, other children's belief, and others' desire. Participants were 77 kindergarteners (44 4-year old and 33 5-year old children). The researches were conducted by methods of interview, and the following significant results were obtained: 4-year old girls, who judged on the basis of the intention, attributed to other children's desire more maliciously than 4-year old girls who judged on the basis of results. On the other hand, 5-year old children's, or 4-year old boys' desire scores were not significantly different according to their morality. Moreover, the false belief and the belief scores were not significantly different according to the morality. Consequently, it seems reasonable to conclude that the development of 4-year old girls' morality has a great influence on their understanding of the other children's desire in early childhood.
The author has estimated the brain activity using EEG coherence, last few years. In the study in the first semester in 2011, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded simultaneously from two healthy subjects (all of them is female and 21 years old), ongoing the mental arithmetic tasks and the pictorial tasks specialized for the visual cortex of working memory tasks. EEG coherence obtained from EEG was employed to examine the networks among the brain regions. In addition, heat rate variabilities during their tasks loading were recorded and used as references to the coherence analyses, for checking the mental condition against the relax. As a result, it is presumed that the increases of coherence on lower theta band reflect the degree of concentration to a task. Moreover, the involvement of the specific frequency band (theta-4 to lower alpha band (around 8-10 Hz)) to the visual information processing must be considered. From the past results, it is considered that the autonomic nerve activity is probably, strongly linked to the alpha band but not to the theta band.
(I clarify) The purpose of this study is to clarify the present conditions and recognition about the role accomplishment of the school nurse. It was intended to examine the way and directionality of the school nurse training based on nursing basic education.Therefore I mailed unsigned inventory survey to 396 incumbent school nurses of the A prefecture and had a school nurse reply it and obtained the effective answer of 143 people. The school nurse satisfied with duties was 71.6% in total. As for the base of other education that 75.7% were satisfactory as for the base of the nursing science, 68.2% were satisfactory, but the significant difference was not recognized. When I was satisfied with work, significant difference was seen when confident in "health consultation activity (p=0.010)" and "health room management (p=0.011)" and "human relations (p=0.000)". When there were the years of experience more than 11 years, significant difference was seen with being confident of "health room management (p=0.031)". As for the confidence degree for "health organization activity", significant difference was recognized in the owner of the community health nurse license( p=0.046). The thing that first aid did not have confidence was 21.7% of the whole, and nursing science was 82.6%, and other education bases were 77.9%. The significant difference was not recognized, but it was revealed that nursing science was slightly high.
This study was performed to elucidate the recognition of "Health and Safety," a chapter in the Nursery School Childcare Guidance, and its implementation by the childcare persons after the revision of the Guidance. The survey was conducted using the stratified random sampling method on 1,763 childcare persons of 130 nursery schools in prefecture A (collection rate:46.2% ).The result revealed that the childcare persons tended to recognize that actions for "Health and Safety" were taken. They have been confident with their routine procedures that were performed since before the revision, such as "understanding the health condition of the child and reporting to his/her guardian when s/he develops illness," and "infection prevention and maintaining better health environment in nursery schools." On the other hand, there is still the need for quality childcare, which were newly included in the Guidance in this revision, such as food education, support for families and nursery school plans for health promotion and its evaluation. The result also suggested that employing specialists such as nurses and dieticians will lead to the better quality of care in nursery schools.Employing full-time specialists such as nurses and working with "Health and Safety" systematically in each nursery school may contribute to better childcare in the future.
This study is intended to clarify the recognition and role that childcare person expects of a person of school nursing job . Study method performed a study of the qualitative induction using a semiconstitutive interview for 12 people of six childcare people who worked in the nursery school where six childcare people who worked in the nursery school where a person of post of nursing was located, person of post of nursing were not located.As a result, it were extracted 6 categories of [the daily health care of the child] [a judgment, correspondence to the issue of health] [the consultant who made use of specialty] [the educational relation that I made use of specialty in] [the relief of the child] and [the protector support that I made use of specialty in]Regardless of the placement of the person of nursing job, a judgment of the early detection, abnormality of illness, expertise including the correspondence to a sudden change, specialized correspondence based on grounds, existence itself of the person of post of nursing were connected in the relief to a childcare person, afamily.The healthy support of the further child, protector support are pursued in the present, the nursery school which the decline of the nurture power of the family has pointed outIt was suggested that it led to improvement of the quality of the childcare the existence of the person of nursing job played an educational role to a childcare person in the childcare health, and to show each other's specialty.
"The images of Brazilian soccer history" have been historically constructed by Brazilians. It is supposed that the discourses expressing Brazilian Soccer style have been constructed in the similar process, so this study intends to make sure of this historical relationship. On the basis of preliminary bibliographical review, the periodization for this study was divided in three: the first period is from the 1940s to the 1960s, the second period is from the 1970s to the 1980s and the third period is from the 1990s until today. As a consequence of this analysis considering with 1)the discourses of influential authors and their way of writings and 2)the suitable image of Brazilian soccer in each period, we find out the following points:1. In the first period (from the 1940s to the 1960s) we recognize the LOCAL viewpoint, which paid attention to the black and the mestizo soccer players in Rio de Janeiro against the racism.2. In the second period (from the 1970s to the 1980s) we recognize the NATIONAL viewpoint, which focused on the people surviving in Brazilian society under the military regime.3. In the third period (from the 1990s until today) we recognize the GLOBAL viewpoint, which is watching Brazilian soccer in the international context of globalization.
This study conducted a field survey on grassroots NGO engaged in activities to support the elderly in Beijing city in order to clarify the process in which grassroots NGO developing welfare activities in urban areas in China start community activities, the details of its activities and its relationship with local residents and the existing social organizations. As a result, it has become clear that grassroots NGO is starting its undertakings in collaboration with the local administrative bodies discussing in-depth with them beforehand in order to participate in new communities. Also, regarding its activities to support the elderly, it was striving to grasp the needs of the elderly in need of care by conducting door-to-door surveys on the elderly's homes, obtaining information on them from the local residents committees. The challenges have become clear of how NGO can gain local residents' understanding of its activities and how it can collaborate with existing social organizations in order to actively develop its undertakings in communities in the future.
In March 2003, Report of the Study Group on the way of technical education in basic education of nursing" (MHLW) was issued, and it indicated the technical level of the necessary three items for the nursing students. Based on the technical level, we have also created a checklist for nursing skills and used it to check on every practice. In this study, we researched to define the nursing skills that the students experienced through the practice in three areas in 2010 and detect a problem. In the result of the investigation, the average implementation rate in the 1 level was 55.3% of the total and the rate of five of them was 90% or more. In addition, the average implementation rate in the level 2 was 33.5% of the total and the rate of five of them was 60% or more. Moreover, the average implementation rate in the 3 level was 23.4% overall low. From this, it was defined that the implementation rate in the technical fields of daily life was high. On the other hand, the rate in the medical assistance skills with an attack a body was low. In a clinical practice, it was suggested the necessity to increase the opportunity to check the nursing skills with students, to support the preparation before the practice, to share an information about a less clinical practice techniques between with the faculty and the clinical instructor, and considered necessary to improve the system that is easy to obtain the opportunity.
In this study, we investigated 22 items of the physical assessment skills carried out for the purpose of getting a suggestion of the necessary physical assessment teaching in nursing basic education by clarifying the knowledge of the physical assessment skill of the nurse, enforcement frequency, the actual situation of the need in the clinical spot. As a result, it was ten items of the [ocular inspection of the chest] [respiratory examination by a stethoscope] [ocular inspection of the arms, lower limbs] [palpation of the skin] [palpation of edema] [abdominal ocular inspection] [Abdominal palpation] [examination by a stethoscope of the bowels peristalsis sound] [level of consciousness] [Pupil pupillary light reflex] to have been high in all ratios of need, knowledge, enforcement frequency. As for these, it was thought that it was the item which was necessary as a physical assessment technology in daily nursing practice regardless of a domain, and it was thought that it was necessary to teach certain knowledge and technique in the nursing basic education. On the other hand, it was four items of the [examination of muscular strength] [examination of equilibrium function] [examination of cerebellum] [Line tonus sthenia limb rank] that, all ratios of knowledge, enforcement frequency, need were low. An opportunity to carry it out routinely has few these items, and it is thought that it is the item which it is hard to tie to a nursing care more. Based upon the foregoing, I examined priority in the physical assessment teaching, and it was suggested that a laborer of the education content that could inflect needed clinical.