This paper discusses the theory of genericization of a trademark from a linguistic perspective. Genericization is a process in which a trademark, initially indicating a type of product or service by a specific provider, becomes a generic name for a category to which it belongs and unable to be recognized as a brand name of the provider. While it is judged by law whether or not this process occurs, this semantic broadening itself is a common linguistic phenomenon, into which linguistics has a potential to offer fruitful insights. This paper attempts to model the semantic change from a constructional-grammatical and usage-based perspective, taking up a genericized trademark escalator as an example. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a new interdisciplinary framework called “Trademark Linguistics” that not only contributes to a legal practice but also brings a new perspective to linguistics.
Teaching foreign language speaking skills to larger classes of students may require superior teaching skills and methodology. An online learning management system (LMS) is an example of a technological solution teachers could adopt in response to this challenge. However, to assess the suitability of LMSs for use in specific teaching contexts and to modify practice in response to challenges posed by these contexts, teacher reflection is required. In this study, a teacher of English to first-year university students in Japan describes his own reflections about the use of an LMS to facilitate speaking activities. While these reflections are limited to the 2019/2020 academic year and a single institution, they suggest that LMSs can assist in the management of speaking activities both outside and inside the classroom. LMSs are also useful when giving feedback to individual students. On the other hand, the teacher’s reflection drew his attention to some negative aspects of introducing this technology, as the new type of speaking activities required the teacher to allocate significant amounts of time for feedback outside of lessons. He also needed to gain a better understanding of how the students interacted with the LMS to improve the ways he gave them support. Finally, most of the students’ interactions involved the use of smartphones. Therefore, improving understandings of how smartphone use is related to broader patterns in language students’ digital literacy is an area the teacher recommends for future reflection and research.
Liberal eugenics insists on the modification (editing) of the human embryo's genome for the well-being of future unborn children. The criteria for this modification have multiple steps, but the ultimate criterion is the most superior genetic sequence. This paper reveals the paradox of liberal eugenics by pointing out that this single criterion rather jeopardizes the sustainable survival of humanity. As long as the best genetic sequences converge into a single order, liberal eugenics will lead to a reduction or loss of genetic diversity, which is essential for the
sustainability of species. Liberal eugenics, insofar as it pursues the best genetic sequence (objective value), will produce the opposite of its original ideals. Because of this paradox, we conclude that there should be clear limiting criteria for genome editing techniques in human embryos.