Japanese Journal of Entomology (New Series)
Online ISSN : 2432-0269
Print ISSN : 1343-8794
Current issue
Displaying 1-17 of 17 articles from this issue
  • Kanami Toshimitsu, Daisuke Hayashi, Fumito Yano, Shingo Hosoishi, Mako ...
    2022 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 87-94
    Published: September 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 29, 2022

    Ants play an important role in forest ecosystems in terms of biomass and various biological interactions, but non-destructive continuous observation of colonies is difficult for species nesting in trees. During the investigations of forest arboreal small mammals using wood nest boxes between January and December 2021, nestings of Camponotus kiusiuensis Santschi were observed at high frequencies in a census site on Mount Kyougatake, Saga Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. We surveyed the nesting site preference of C. kiusiuensis and conducted monthly observations of colony compositions from spring to winter. Among three types of nest boxes, small (500 cm3), medium (1,000 cm3), and large (2,000 cm3), C. kiusiuensis nested in the large nest boxes at significantly higher frequencies. Although the nest boxes were either set at low (1.5–2.0 m high) or high (3.5–4.0 m high) positions of trees, no significant differences were detected in the nesting sites between them. The number of colonies was the highest in April and it gradually decreased from spring to autumn. In the nest boxes in which colonies of C. kiusiuensis were continuously observed until autumn, the developmental stages of immature individuals inside were almost uniform: larvae were observed from April to June, pupae in July, and many adults including males and new alate queens were found in August and September. No or very few ant individuals were observed in October and November, suggesting that workers moved the larvae to other places in late autumn. Based on our observations, the arboreal nest boxes seem not to be suitable sites for overwintering.

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  • Satoko Nakajima, Shiro Nakao
    2022 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 95-105
    Published: September 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 29, 2022

    Pheidole fervens Smith was collected at Kyoto City in 2020 for the first time in Honshu Island, Japan. No individual of this invasive ant species was collected between 2016 and 2019 at the invasion area and surrounding one. Ninety-seven and 457 individuals of P. fervens including major workers were captured by traps in 2020 and in 2021, respectively, suggesting that the invasion/establishment had occurred in 2019 or in early 2020. To detect ecological impacts of P. fervens invasion on ant community, we compared collecting rate and number of individuals captured by traps for other ant species between the invasion area and the non-invasion one in 2021. At late November and mid-December 2021, this invasive species was found within a range of about 100 m from north to south and 30–40 m from east to west, and was the dominant ant in the area. Collecting rates of Tetramorium tsushimae Emery and Formica japonica Motschoulsky in the invasion area were lower than those in the non-invasion area in 2021. These results suggested that these two common ant species would be displaced by P. fervens. On the other hand, P. nodus Smith sympatrically inhabited with P. fervens even from 2020 onwards, and no difference was found in mean number of P. nodus individuals captured and in its collecting rate between the invasion area and the non-invasion one. In addition to this, no apparent impact of P. fervens invasion on Nylanderia amia was detected in the present study.

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  • Shin Komagata, Kota Ogawa
    2022 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 128-143
    Published: September 25, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: September 29, 2022

    As part of promoting digital transformation (DX) in the field of entomology, we present a method for drawing morphological illustrations of insects using digital devices. The method presented here uses an iPad, Apple pencil, and ibis Paint. The combination of the iPad and Apple pencil is superior in imitating the sensation of drawing with a pen on paper, and the use of the ibis Paint is advantageous in almost all the functions required to create scientific illustrations.

    For figures used in scientific papers, the recommended canvas size of the ibis Paint is 2400×3200 pixels with a resolution of 600 dpi. The following steps are recommended for the ibis Paint: first, in the “Settings” set “Use Pressure Sensitivity” and “Palm Rejection” to on, “Quick Eyedropper” to off, and “Stabilizer” to the maximum value of 10 for ease of use. Next, set the following five brushes to Custom Brush: Pencil #1, Dip Pen (Hard), Dashed Line, Outline (Fade), and Felt Tip Pen (Soft).

    The layer function is utilized in the drawing process. The drafting procedure differs depending on whether the tracing or grid method is used. In the tracing method, the photograph to be traced is imported and set on the bottom layer. After adjusting the position, angle, and transparency of the photo, create a new layer for the draft and use “Pencil #1” to write the draft. For the grid method, start “Filter” mode and use the filter “Table (Size)” to create a grid. After placing the grid layer on the bottom layer, create a new layer for drafting and write a draft using “Pencil #1”.

    For inking (final drawing), use “Dip Pen (Hard)” to draw the outline first, and then add details in sequence. Use “Dashed Line” for structures hidden behind, “Outline (Fade)” for soft hairs, and “Felt Tip Pen (Soft)” for dots. Using different layers for different purposes, such as shadows, three-dimensional expressions, and hairs, makes revising later easier. Screen tones can be used to fill in arbitrary areas with slash or cross lines.

    The method presented here can easily applied to simulate traditional drawing techniques.Thus, it can be adopted by different users, from senior researchers who already have established techniques to students who intend to learn scientific drawing. However, this method is still in its infancy, and it is necessary to continue to develop improved methods. Therefore, sharing the practical usage of digital devices with the entire entomological community is also essential.

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