昆蟲.ニューシリーズ
Online ISSN : 2432-0269
Print ISSN : 1343-8794
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選択された号の論文の17件中1~17を表示しています
原著論文
  • 利光 花菜美, 林 大祐, 矢野 文士, 細石 真吾, 徳田 誠
    2022 年 25 巻 3 号 p. 87-94
    発行日: 2022/09/25
    公開日: 2022/09/29
    ジャーナル フリー

    Ants play an important role in forest ecosystems in terms of biomass and various biological interactions, but non-destructive continuous observation of colonies is difficult for species nesting in trees. During the investigations of forest arboreal small mammals using wood nest boxes between January and December 2021, nestings of Camponotus kiusiuensis Santschi were observed at high frequencies in a census site on Mount Kyougatake, Saga Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. We surveyed the nesting site preference of C. kiusiuensis and conducted monthly observations of colony compositions from spring to winter. Among three types of nest boxes, small (500 cm3), medium (1,000 cm3), and large (2,000 cm3), C. kiusiuensis nested in the large nest boxes at significantly higher frequencies. Although the nest boxes were either set at low (1.5–2.0 m high) or high (3.5–4.0 m high) positions of trees, no significant differences were detected in the nesting sites between them. The number of colonies was the highest in April and it gradually decreased from spring to autumn. In the nest boxes in which colonies of C. kiusiuensis were continuously observed until autumn, the developmental stages of immature individuals inside were almost uniform: larvae were observed from April to June, pupae in July, and many adults including males and new alate queens were found in August and September. No or very few ant individuals were observed in October and November, suggesting that workers moved the larvae to other places in late autumn. Based on our observations, the arboreal nest boxes seem not to be suitable sites for overwintering.

  • 中嶋 智子, 中尾 史郎
    2022 年 25 巻 3 号 p. 95-105
    発行日: 2022/09/25
    公開日: 2022/09/29
    ジャーナル フリー

    南アジア,東南アジア,東アジア,オセアニア地域に広く生息する放浪種のミナミオオズアリPheidole fervens Smith, 1858は,日本国内では,南西諸島から九州南部に連続分布している.京都市で2020年にミナミオオズアリを採取したので,本州初記録として報告するとともに,本種の現在の生息状況と2016年以降の発見場所周辺の調査資料から本種の侵入定着の時期を推定し,同時に在来アリへの影響を明らかにした.2016年から2019年に実施した調査では26種のアリ類が採取されミナミオオズアリの採取はなかったこと,ミナミオオズアリは2020年9月に97個体,2021年10月に457個体とわずか30分間の砂糖水ベイト誘引でメジャーワーカーを含む多数のワーカーが採取されたことから,侵入定着時期は2019年から2020年初頭と推定した.2021年11月下旬と12月中旬に実施した調査では,陸続きである南北方向に約100 m拡がっていたことから本種の分布拡大速度は2年間で約50 mと予想した.この調査で15種2150個体のアリを採取し,ミナミオオズアリ侵入区とその周囲の非侵入区に分けアリ相を比較し,ミナミオオズアリ侵入の影響をみた.侵入区でミナミオオズアリは,他のアリ種に比べ62 %と最も高い採取率を示し,採取個体数も総採取アリ数の66 %と,すでに優占種であった.侵入区では,在来の普通種のトビイロシワアリTetramorium tsushimae Emery, 1925の平均採取個体数は非侵入区の1 %と少なく,クロヤマアリFormica japonica Motschoulsky, 1866は採取されず,ぞれぞれの採取率はミナミオオズアリの存否で差異が認められたことから,これらとミナミオオズアリが置き換わる可能性も示唆された.一方,オオズアリP. nodus Smith, 1874は,その生息適地に重なるミナミオオズアリの分布域では,ミナミオオズアリと同所的に生息し,オオズアリの存否では平均採取個体数と採取率には差異はみられず,本種の侵入による影響は小さいと考えられた.また,ミナミオオズアリに先んじて侵入定着しているケブカアメイロアリNylanderia amia(Forel, 1913)では,その平均採取個体数と採取率が侵入区で2.7個体と29%,非侵入区で2.1個体と29%と同程度の値を示し,侵入区と非侵入区で採取率に差異がなく,本種の侵入影響は明確ではなかった.

短報
新記録ノート
連載:昆虫学を拓く
  • 駒形 森, 小川 浩太
    2022 年 25 巻 3 号 p. 128-143
    発行日: 2022/09/25
    公開日: 2022/09/29
    ジャーナル フリー

    As part of promoting digital transformation (DX) in the field of entomology, we present a method for drawing morphological illustrations of insects using digital devices. The method presented here uses an iPad, Apple pencil, and ibis Paint. The combination of the iPad and Apple pencil is superior in imitating the sensation of drawing with a pen on paper, and the use of the ibis Paint is advantageous in almost all the functions required to create scientific illustrations.

    For figures used in scientific papers, the recommended canvas size of the ibis Paint is 2400×3200 pixels with a resolution of 600 dpi. The following steps are recommended for the ibis Paint: first, in the “Settings” set “Use Pressure Sensitivity” and “Palm Rejection” to on, “Quick Eyedropper” to off, and “Stabilizer” to the maximum value of 10 for ease of use. Next, set the following five brushes to Custom Brush: Pencil #1, Dip Pen (Hard), Dashed Line, Outline (Fade), and Felt Tip Pen (Soft).

    The layer function is utilized in the drawing process. The drafting procedure differs depending on whether the tracing or grid method is used. In the tracing method, the photograph to be traced is imported and set on the bottom layer. After adjusting the position, angle, and transparency of the photo, create a new layer for the draft and use “Pencil #1” to write the draft. For the grid method, start “Filter” mode and use the filter “Table (Size)” to create a grid. After placing the grid layer on the bottom layer, create a new layer for drafting and write a draft using “Pencil #1”.

    For inking (final drawing), use “Dip Pen (Hard)” to draw the outline first, and then add details in sequence. Use “Dashed Line” for structures hidden behind, “Outline (Fade)” for soft hairs, and “Felt Tip Pen (Soft)” for dots. Using different layers for different purposes, such as shadows, three-dimensional expressions, and hairs, makes revising later easier. Screen tones can be used to fill in arbitrary areas with slash or cross lines.

    The method presented here can easily applied to simulate traditional drawing techniques.Thus, it can be adopted by different users, from senior researchers who already have established techniques to students who intend to learn scientific drawing. However, this method is still in its infancy, and it is necessary to continue to develop improved methods. Therefore, sharing the practical usage of digital devices with the entire entomological community is also essential.

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