The degree of lip dryness is accompanied by the changes in atmospheric temperature and/or humidity. In an attempt to relieve lip dryness, lip is commonly and involuntarily licked. When lip dryness becomes noticeable, people often apply products such as lip balm to protect the lips, but this may be insufficient to hydrate them because toothpaste and facial wash tend to dry them whenever they are used. Also, during the dry winter season, involuntary lip-licking to hydrate the lips becomes habitual, even among adults, occasionally leading to lip-licking dermatitis. Apart from lip-licking, tooth brushing and lip-biking are able to make lips more prone to get dry and sore. The overall evaluation on lip appearance is often reflected by the severity of chapped lips (e.g., cracks and/or peels), but due to the variation in individual’s sensitivities, the subjective dryness assessment does not necessarily agree with the objective evaluation. Therefore, we tried to develop an objective lip dryness scoring system based on the analysis of UV light-exposed lip images that could capture the dryness conditions usually undetectable through medical interviews or gross examination. We also discussed how subjective and objective lip evaluations were associated with daily life-related matters derived from medical interviews and questionnaires.
Melanin pigments in each hair are supplied from melanocytes, which are originally derived from the neural crest. Pigmented hairs are produced by the cyclic growth and differentiation of multiple cell types and is governed by resident follicular keratinocyte stem cells residing in the specific part of the hair follicle called the bulge. Melanocytes also grow and differentiate responding to the hair cycle from melanocyte stem cells. Melanocyte stem cells are also located in the bulge region and the niche function of melanocyte stem cells was known to be conducted by the follicular keratinocyte stem cells. Hair graying is a condition in some areas of hairs exhibiting white hairs or colorless, and is caused by irreversible defects in the self-renewal and/or development of follicular melanocyte stem cells in the hair follicles. Also, the function of the melanocytes declines with age, and their numbers diminish gradually. I introduce the recent studies and our results on the mechanisms of hair graying and controlling the self-renewal of follicular melanocyte stem cells, and also introduce our collaborative work how to care or improve the hair graying.
Important factors for beautiful hair are summarized in this report, based on hair structure and physical properties. Those factors are the luster, shape and motion of the hair. The first factor, hair luster, is controlled by the optical properties of surface cuticle layers and internal structure. Disordered cuticle layers and the porous structure of internal layer cause light scattering and inhibit clear light reflections. A technology to control well-ordered cuticle layers and pore-less structure is proposed to improve the optical properties. The second factor, hair shape, can be controlled by the distribution of two types of cortical cells of different structures. Curved hairs show the asymmetrical distribution of those cells. A technology to relax the curved hair shape is proposed, based on the different swelling behaviors of those cells by the adsorption of cosmetic ingredients. The third factor, hair motion, can be controlled by the distribution of two types of cortical cells of different mechanical properties. The flexible and elastic motion of hair is realized by two-layered mechanical properties, which are the softer outer layer and stiffer inner layer of the hair fiber. A technology to selectively soften the outer layer is proposed for the flexible and elastic behavior of the hair.
There have been some remarkable developments in the progress of cancer treatment and in developing infrastructures for outpatient treatment environments. As a result, the five-year survival rate has risen for all types of cancer, and 325,000 cancer patients now undergo outpatient treatment while still holding jobs. However, such patients can have a very difficult time interacting with society due to the changes in physical appearance that accompany cancer treatment. A patient might wonder whether his or her physical appearance would reveal his or her illness, fueling concerns that it would then become impossible to maintain equal relationships as before. In this paper, I consider patient support from the perspective of “hair loss,” which is ranked as the top physical symptom of concern for many cancer patients. I first introduce what is currently known about treatments that result in changes to hair and haircare treatments that can be used during hair loss. I then cover some important points for physicians when supporting patients with actual appearance care.
The aim of this lecture series is to expand dermatologists interested in Japanese Cosmetic Science Society by providing basic scientific knowledge of cosmetics. Articles of this series planed for two years will include various aspects of cosmetic products and their functions, regulations, relations with troubled skin. I hope that this lecture series will be helpful, not only for dermatologists, but also for paramedicals and cosmetic scientists.
Why people wear make-up is a fundamental and wide-ranging question. Make-up and skin care have evolved over the course of time through the influence of society and culture. Having undergone many changes, the term “make-up” has become a word that encompasses numerous meanings and concepts. In an attempt to answer the question why people wear make-up, this paper first analyzes what constitutes make-up from the viewpoint of make-up activities and the meaning of make-up, then it traces the changes in what comprises make-up in Japanese cosmetic culture. Lastly it examines modern make-up from three perspectives: the allure of women’s appearance, the effects of make-up, and the interpretation of beauty culture.